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Sights of Munich


Cathedral Church of Our Lady (Frauenkirche)

Metropolitan Church of the Archbishopric of Munich-Freising. Late Gothic nave from the 15th century, interior with works of art spanning 5 centuries; landmark for the City of Munich.


Marienplatz and Glockenspiel

Sights of Munich

Neues Rathaus

New town hall (Neues Rathaus)

 Built 1867 - 1909 in Flanders Gothic style; its facade, over 300 feet in length, features strikingly elaborate stone ornamentation. Its 260-foot tower with carillon is, with St. Peter's Church and the twin towers of the Cathedral, one of the most distinctive features of the city's skyline.


Nymphenburg Castle

Sights of Munich

Schloss Nymphenburg

Nymphenburg Palace with Park and Pavilions

Nymphenburg Palace Park

The baroque palace in the west part of Munich was the summer residence of the Bavarian monarchs. Five generations of Wittelsbach rulers were involved in the construction of this stately ensemble, which houses several outstanding collections.
With its lavishly decorated interior and the famous "Gallery of Beauties" commissioned by Ludwig I, the palace is one of Munich's favorite attractions. Among the highlights are the former bedroom of King Ludwig II and the impressive banquet hall with fine ceiling frescoes by Johann Baptist Zimmermann.

Nymphenburg was originally Ferdinand Maria's present to his wife Henriette Adelaide on the birth of his heir, in 1675. This was the beginning of a splendid baroque creation. The same heir, Maximilian Emanuel, commissioned the construction of symmetrical buildings, that were connected to the central section by galleries. From 1715 on, fired by their monarch's enthusiasm, the craftsmen, hired for the most part from France or Flanders, worked wonders in the expansion of Nymphenburg and the building of Schleißheim Palace.

While you're there, be sure not to miss the Marstallmuseum and the Porcelain Museum, the Museum Mensch und Natur and the Botanical Garden.

Nymphenburger Schlosspark

Nymphenburg Palace Park

The landscaped park with its venerable trees, myriad waterways and secluded pavilions is an ideal place to go exploring.



An exquisite example of rococo at its finest. The circular hall of mirrors creates an ethereal atmosphere in the Bavarian national colors, silver and blue.
The charming pavilion was a present from Elector Karl Albrecht to his wife Amalia, a daughter of Emperor Joseph I
Built by Cuvilliés between 1734 and 1739, the Amalienburg is considered to be the loveliest pleasure pavilion in the European rococo tradition.



First heated indoor pool of modern times.

Public bathing scene for the court's enjoyment: the Badenburg was built with this idea in mind. The heated, tiled pool - quite rare for the period - opens onto a hall decorated in stucco marble. Josef Effner built the pavilion in 1719-21. It was later remodeled by Klenze.



Chinese-style rococo: The most personal and intimate creation of Elector Maximilian Emanuel.

French on the outside, Oriental on the inside: the first of the garden pavilions to be built (Effner, 1716-19) is like a precious jewel, with its two hexagonal drawing rooms and the Chinese cabinet - the monarch's "Chinese luxury" soon became the rage. The octagonal ground floor is covered with 2,000 Dutch Delft tiles. The rooms above are ornamented in black and red lacquer and painted silk and paper tapestries.



"Memento mori" of a hedonistic ruler: one of the first artificial ruins in European garden landscaping.

The Hermitage is dedicated to the lovely sinner, Mary Magdalen, whose likeness is reproduced in the paintings and in a stucco statue. The gloominess of the retreat was meant to move the ageing Elector Max Emanuel to self-chastisement. However, the ruler died before the pavilion's dedication in 1728. 

Olympic Park

Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum Technical Museum

Pinakotheken Art Galleries (Old, New and Modern)

BMW Welt
BMW World

A city of southeast Germany near the Bavarian Alps southeast of Augsburg. Founded in 1158, it has long been the center of Bavaria. Adolf Hitler organized the Nazi Party here after World War I and signed the Munich Pact, widely regarded as a symbol of appeasement, with Great Britain, France, and Italy in 1938. The city was largely rebuilt after extensive Allied bombing in World War II. Population: 1,240,000.

Munich (myū'nĭk) , Ger. München (mün'khən), city (1994 pop. 1,255,623), capital of Bavaria, S Germany, on the Isar River near the Bavarian Alps. It is a financial, commercial, industrial, transportation, communications, and cultural center. Its industries produce precision and optical instruments, electrical appliances, clothing, chemicals, motor vehicles, and beer. Munich is also a major center for film production and book publishing, and is home to one of Europe's largest wholesale produce markets. The city is a major tourist and convention center; a new airport handling both domestic and international flights was opened in 1992.

Points of Interest

Among the city's chief attractions are the Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady), a twin-towered cathedral built from 1468 to 1488; the Renaissance-style St. Michael's Church (1583–97); the Theatinerkirche (17th–18th cent.), a baroque church; Nymphenburg castle (1664–1728), with a porcelain factory (founded 1747) and the nearby Amalienburg (1734–39), a small rococo hunting château; the new city hall (1867–1908); Propyläen (1846–62), a monumental neoclassic gate; and the large English Garden (laid out 1789–1832). The city also has several leading museums, including the Old Pinakothek (built 1826–36), the reconstructed New Pinakothek, and the Modern Pinakothek, which house distinguished collections of art; the Bavarian National Museum (built 1894–99); the Schack-Galerie; the Glyptothek (built 1816–30); and the German Museum, which has wide-ranging exhibits on science, technology, and industry. The seat of an archbishop, Munich has a famous university (founded 1472 at Ingolstadt; transferred in 1802 to Landshut and in 1826 to Munich) in addition to a technical university, a conservatory of music, an opera, numerous theaters, and many publishing houses. Other educational institutions include academies of art, music, military studies, philosophy, film, and television. Munich is also noted for its lively Fasching (Shrove Tuesday) and Oktoberfest (October festival) celebrations. The 1972 Olympic summer games were centered at Munich.


Situated near a settlement (Munichen) that was established in Carolingian times, Munich was founded (1158) by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and of Bavaria. In 1255 it was chosen as the residence of the Wittelsbach family, the dukes of Bavaria; it later became (1506) the capital of the dukedom. During the Thirty Years War, Munich was occupied (1632) by Gustavus II of Sweden. In 1806 the city was made capital of the kingdom of Bavaria. Under the kings Louis I (1825–48), Maximilian II (1848–64), and Louis II (1864–86), Munich became a cultural and artistic center, and it played a leading role in the development of 19th- and 20th-century German painting.

After World War I the city was the scene of considerable political unrest. National Socialism (Nazism) was founded there, and on Nov. 8, 1923, Adolf Hitler failed in his attempted Munich “beer-hall putsch”—a coup aimed at the Bavarian government. Despite this fiasco, Hitler made Munich the headquarters of the Nazi party, which in 1933 took control of the German national government. Michael Cardinal Faulhaber, the archbishop of Munich, was one of the few outspoken critics of the National Socialist regime. In Sept., 1938, the Munich Pact was signed in the city; in 1939 Hitler suppressed a Bavarian separatist plot there. Munich was badly damaged during World War II, but after 1945 it was extensively rebuilt and many modern buildings were constructed.


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Capital of Bavaria, located in southern Germany near the Bavarian Alps; a commercial, industrial, transportation, communications, and cultural center.


  • Munich was the scene of the Nazi party's rise to power; National Socialism (Nazism) was founded there in 1918, and Adolf Hitler led an attempted revolution in Munich in 1923, the Beer Hall Putsch.

  • The Munich Pact, drawn up in 1938, forced Czechoslovakia to give up territory to the Nazis.

  • During World War II, the Allies bombed much of the city. After the war, it was the largest city in the American occupation zone.

  • The telephone dialing code for: Munich, Germany

    The country code is : 49


    The local code(s) :


    Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and related words.

    The noun Munich has one meaning:

    Meaning #1: the capital and largest city of Bavaria in southeastern Germany
      Synonym: Muenchen


    Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple


    Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple

    Munich (German: München (pronounced [ˈmʏnçən] 10px listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. Behind Berlin and Hamburg, Munich is Germany's third largest city with a population of about 1.402 million (as of 2004). It is located on the river Isar, at 48°08′ N 11°34′ E (,402,000)). The city's motto is "Die Weltstadt mit Herz" (The world city with a heart).


    Coat of Arms


    Coat of Arms of Munich

    Map of Germany showing Munich

    The settlement was founded as Munichen in 1158 by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, and half a century later it was granted city status and fortified. Initially, bishop Otto von Freising (Freising) and Henry quarreled about the city before the emperor at a Reichstag held in Augsburg. In 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto of Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria. His Wittelsbach dynasty would rule Bavaria until 1918. In 1255, the dukedom of Bavaria was split in two, and Munich became the residence of Upper Bavaria.

    In 1327, the entire city was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt some years later by Louis IV, the ruling Holy Roman Emperor of the time. In 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War and following 1705 it was under the control of the Habsburg family for some years. The city's first academic institution, the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, was founded in 1759.

    By that time, the city was growing very quickly and was one of the largest cities in mainland Europe. In 1806, it became the capital of the Bavarian monarchical state, with the state's parliament (the Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city. Twenty years later Landshut University was moved to Munich.

    Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the reigns of the kings Ludwig I and Maximilian II. These buildings include the Ruhmeshalle and those on Ludwigstraße and Königsplatz, built by architects Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner, and the "Bavaria" statue by Ludwig Michael von Schwanthaler.

    In 1882 electric lighting was introduced to Munich, and the city hosted Germany's first exhibition of electricity. Nineteen years later the Hellabrunn Zoo opened in the city. After World War I, the city was at the center of much unrest. In November 1918, Communists took power establishing the Bavarian Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) which was put down on May 3 1919 by the right wing Freikorps, many of whom were later drawn to Adolf Hitler and National Socialism. In 1923 Hitler and his supporters, who then were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power. But the revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the crippling of the Nazi Party, which was virtually unknown outside Munich. However, the city would once again become a Nazi stronghold when they took power in Germany in 1933. Because of its importance to the rise of Nazism, the Nazis called it Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("capital of the movement"). The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which have survived to this day.

    Bavaria statue


    Bavaria statue

    In 1938, the Munich Agreement was signed in the city, ceding the mostly German speaking Sudetenland, previously a part of Czechoslovakia, to Germany. It was signed by representatives of Germany, Italy, France and Britain. A year later, in 1939, Georg Elser failed with his attempt to assassinate Hitler while the latter was giving his annual speech to commemorate the Beer Hall Putsch in the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich.

    Munich was the city where the White Rose (German: Die Weiße Rose), a group of students that formed a resistance movement from June 1942 to February 1943, was based. The core members were arrested following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

    The city was very heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II. After American occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and, by comparison to other war-ravaged German cities, a rather conservative plan which preserved its pre-war street grid.

    Munich was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics, during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian terrorists (see Munich massacre), where terrorist gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team. A rescue attempt by the West German government was unsuccessful and resulted in the deaths of the Israeli hostages, 5 of the terrorists, and one German police officer.

    Several games of the 1974 Soccer World Cup were also held in the city and in 2006 it will again be host to several games, including the opening match of the next FIFA Soccer World Cup.


    The Theatinerkirche on Odeonsplatz in the historic city centre


    The Theatinerkirche on Odeonsplatz in the historic city centre

    Munich is a popular tourist destination and has been described as Germany's "second city".

    The city has several important art museums, among them the Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek, and the Pinakothek der Moderne. Before World War I, it was also the site of the Blaue Reiter group of artists.

    Other famous tourist attractions include the English Garden (Englischer Garten - a garden park roughly in the center of the city that contains a nudist area, jogging tracks and bridle-paths), the Deutsches Museum (Science Museum), and the Rathaus-Glockenspiel, an ornate clock with moving figures atop the town hall. Perhaps Munich's most famous attraction is the Oktoberfest, a 2-week-long fair with many rides and several very large tents. The Oktoberfest was first held October 12, 1810 in honor of the marriage of crown Prince Ludwig to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest. Despite its name, Oktoberfest actually begins in September. It lasts two weeks and always finishes on the first Sunday in October.

    Other famous buildings in Munich include the Frauenkirche ("Dom zu unserer Lieben Frau" - Cathedral of Our Lady) and the Olympiaturm ("Olympic Tower"), where visitors can be elevated on top. It is also an important radio and TV broadcasting station.

    The diamond-check version of the Munich flag (left) and the Bavarian flag (right). The Frauenkirche is behind.


    The diamond-check version of the Munich flag (left) and the Bavarian flag (right). The Frauenkirche is behind.

    The Frauenkirche is the most famous building in the city center. This is Munich's central cathedral and is famous for its twin towers which are topped with brass minaret-type structures. At first glance the two towers appear to be the same height but in actual fact one is slightly taller than the other. Unlike most buildings in Munich's old town, the towers of the Frauenkirche (but not the church itself) survived the war intact, making them more than 400 years old. The Frauenkirche's towers (109 meters or 358 feet tall) are also the measurement for a new rule which limits the height of new buildings to the same height. This rule was passed in November 2004 by the people of Munich in a referendum ("Bürgerentscheid") organized by Georg Kronawitter, a former SPD mayor, against the will of the political parties in the city's parliament ("Stadtrat") who feared that it would harm the city's attractiveness to investors.

    The Olympiaturm (Olympic Tower) and the Olympic Park with its stadium was built for the 1972 Summer Olympics which were held in Munich. The Olympic buildings are famous for their design, which was inspired by dew-covered cobwebs.

    The 2006 World Cup, however, will not take place in the traditional Olympic Stadium, but in Munich's new soccer stadium, the Allianz Arena.

    BMW Headquarters building (one of the few buildings that have been built from the top to the bottom) and the bowl shaped BMW museum


    BMW Headquarters building (one of the few buildings that have been built from the top to the bottom) and the bowl shaped BMW museum



    BMW Headquarters

    Arabella High-Rise Building

    Around Munich

    Lying on the plain of the Voralpenland, the Munich agglomeration sprawls unhindered by geography. Several smaller traditional Bavarian cities are today part of the Munich suburbia and are worth a visit when the main Munich sights are exhausted.





    Garching bei München



    Schloß Nymphenburg (Nymphenburg castle)

    Schloß Oberschleißheim (Oberschleissheim castle)


    Munich was one of the centers of the new economy in Germany, and remains to be a centre for biotechnology, programming and Internet companies in Germany. The city is home to the global headquarters of German insurance companies Allianz AG and Münchener Rück, the car manufacturer BMW, the technology firms Siemens AG and Infineon Technologies, as well as the German headquarters of McDonald’s and Microsoft. In addition to this, Munich is home to a big number of publishing houses, worldwide second only to New York City.


    Residents of Munich enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with highest quality of life worldwide. The 2005 survey rated Munich as 5th. Munich enjoys a thriving economy - principally information technology, biotechnology, and publishing. Environmental pollution is low, although currently the city is concerned about levels of fine dust in the air. The public transport is extremely efficient, although delays on the S-Bahn (light commuter trains) often cause frustration during extreme winter weather. The crime rate is very low and personal safety is high. This high quality of life and safety has caused the city to be nicknamed a "Toytown" - particularly amongst the English speaking residents.

    Nightlife is thriving. There are over 6,000 licensed establishments in the city. Cafe culture is strong in Munich, especially during the summer of course. There are many restaurants accommodating all preferences of cuisine. And possibly the most important free time activity during the summer: the beer gardens. There are around 20 major beer gardens with four of the most famous and popular being located in the Englischer Garten - the largest city park in Europe.


    Munich's current mayor is Christian Ude of the SPD (Social-democratic Party of Germany), and Munich has a nearly unbroken history of SPD governments since World War II. This is extraordinary because the rest of Bavaria is a conservative stronghold, with the CSU (Christian Social Union) winning absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in nearly all elections communal, state and federal level.

    The figure on Munich's coat-of-arms is the Münchner Kindl, the child of Munich (a monk).


    Munich airport, named after Franz Josef Strauß, is Franz Josef Strauß International Airport. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S1 and S8. Its international three-letter code is "MUC".

    Munich has a large public transport system including Subways, Suburban trains, trams and buses. The local transportation is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (

    Colleges and universities

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), founded in 1472 in Ingolstadt, moved to Munich in 1826

    Technical University of Munich (TUM), founded in 1868

    Munich University of Applied Sciences (FHM), founded in 1971

    Universität der Bundeswehr München, founded in 1973

    Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, founded in 1830

    Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, founded in 1808

    Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film , founded in 1966

    Hochschule für Philosophie München, founded in 1925 in Pullach, moved to Munch in 1971

    Hochschule für Politik München

    Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, founded in 1971

    Munich Business School (MBS)

    European School of Management and Technology (esmt)

    Max Plank Institute Garching

    Fraunhofer Institute

    Sister cities

    Bordeaux, since 1964

    Cincinnati, since 1989

    Edinburgh, since 1954

    Harare, since 1996

    Kyiv, since 1989

    Sapporo, since 1972

    Verona, since 1960

    External links

    The city's own website. (

    The Oktoberfest ( with information in both English and German

    Photos ( of Munich, Sights, Daily Life, Oktoberfest, etc.

    Munich travel guide at Wikitravel (

    Lonely Planet guide to Munich (

    Toytown Munich - a community Website about Munich (

    Flag of Bavaria

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    This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer)

    Translations for: Munich

    Português (Portuguese)
    n. - Munique

    Español (Spanish)
    n. - Munich

    中国话 (Simplified Chinese)
    n. - 慕尼黑

    中國話 (Traditional Chinese)
    n. - 慕尼黑

    עברית‬ (Hebrew)
    n. - ‮מינכן‬

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