Munich Germany City Facts
Munich´s Top 10 for visitors
Nymphenburg Palace with Park and Pavilions
Nymphenburg Palace Park
The baroque palace in the west part of Munich was the summer residence of the
Bavarian monarchs. Five generations of Wittelsbach rulers were involved in the
construction of this stately ensemble, which houses several outstanding
With its lavishly decorated interior and the famous "Gallery of
Beauties" commissioned by Ludwig I, the palace is one of Munich's
favorite attractions. Among the highlights are the former bedroom of King
Ludwig II and the impressive banquet hall with fine ceiling frescoes by Johann
Nymphenburg was originally Ferdinand Maria's present to his wife Henriette
Adelaide on the birth of his heir, in 1675. This was the beginning of a
splendid baroque creation. The same heir, Maximilian Emanuel, commissioned the
construction of symmetrical buildings, that were connected to the central
section by galleries. From 1715 on, fired by their monarch's enthusiasm, the
craftsmen, hired for the most part from France or Flanders, worked wonders in
the expansion of Nymphenburg and the building of Schleißheim Palace.
While you're there, be sure not to miss the Marstallmuseum and the Porcelain
Museum, the Museum Mensch und Natur and the Botanical Garden.
Nymphenburg Palace Park
The landscaped park with its venerable trees, myriad waterways and secluded
pavilions is an ideal place to go exploring.
An exquisite example of rococo at its finest. The circular hall of mirrors
creates an ethereal atmosphere in the Bavarian national colors, silver and
The charming pavilion was a present from Elector Karl Albrecht to his wife
Amalia, a daughter of Emperor Joseph I
Built by Cuvilliés between 1734 and 1739, the Amalienburg is considered to be
the loveliest pleasure pavilion in the European rococo tradition.
First heated indoor pool of modern times.
Public bathing scene for the court's enjoyment: the Badenburg was built with
this idea in mind. The heated, tiled pool - quite rare for the period - opens
onto a hall decorated in stucco marble. Josef Effner built the pavilion in
1719-21. It was later remodeled by Klenze.
Chinese-style rococo: The most personal and intimate creation of Elector
French on the outside, Oriental on the inside: the first of the garden
pavilions to be built (Effner, 1716-19) is like a precious jewel, with its two
hexagonal drawing rooms and the Chinese cabinet - the monarch's "Chinese
luxury" soon became the rage. The octagonal ground floor is covered with
2,000 Dutch Delft tiles. The rooms above are ornamented in black and red
lacquer and painted silk and paper tapestries.
"Memento mori" of a hedonistic ruler: one of the first artificial
ruins in European garden landscaping.
The Hermitage is dedicated to the lovely sinner, Mary Magdalen, whose likeness
is reproduced in the paintings and in a stucco statue. The gloominess of the
retreat was meant to move the ageing Elector Max Emanuel to self-chastisement.
However, the ruler died before the pavilion's dedication in 1728.
A city of southeast Germany near the Bavarian Alps southeast of
Augsburg. Founded in 1158, it has long been the center of Bavaria. Adolf
Hitler organized the Nazi Party here after World War I and signed the Munich
Pact, widely regarded as a symbol of appeasement, with Great Britain,
France, and Italy in 1938. The city was largely rebuilt after extensive
Allied bombing in World War II. Population: 1,240,000.
, Ger. München (mün'khən),
city (1994 pop. 1,255,623), capital of Bavaria, S Germany, on the Isar
River near the Bavarian Alps. It is a financial, commercial, industrial,
transportation, communications, and cultural center. Its industries
produce precision and optical instruments, electrical appliances,
clothing, chemicals, motor vehicles, and beer. Munich is also a major
center for film production and book publishing, and is home to one of
Europe's largest wholesale produce markets. The city is a major tourist
and convention center; a new airport handling both domestic and
international flights was opened in 1992.
Points of Interest
Among the city's chief attractions are the Frauenkirche (Church of Our
Lady), a twin-towered cathedral built from 1468 to 1488; the
Renaissance-style St. Michael's Church (1583–97); the Theatinerkirche
(17th–18th cent.), a baroque church; Nymphenburg
castle (1664–1728), with a porcelain factory (founded 1747) and the
nearby Amalienburg (1734–39), a small rococo hunting château; the new
city hall (1867–1908); Propyläen (1846–62), a monumental neoclassic
gate; and the large English Garden (laid out 1789–1832). The city also
has several leading museums, including the Old Pinakothek (built
1826–36), the reconstructed New Pinakothek, and the Modern Pinakothek,
which house distinguished collections of art; the Bavarian National Museum
(built 1894–99); the Schack-Galerie; the Glyptothek
(built 1816–30); and the German Museum, which has wide-ranging exhibits
on science, technology, and industry. The seat of an archbishop, Munich
has a famous university (founded 1472 at Ingolstadt; transferred in 1802
to Landshut and in 1826 to Munich) in addition to a technical university,
a conservatory of music, an opera, numerous theaters, and many publishing
houses. Other educational institutions include academies of art, music,
military studies, philosophy, film, and television. Munich is also noted
for its lively Fasching (Shrove Tuesday) and Oktoberfest (October
festival) celebrations. The 1972 Olympic summer games were centered at
Situated near a settlement (Munichen) that was established in
Carolingian times, Munich was founded (1158) by Henry the Lion, duke of
Saxony and of Bavaria. In 1255 it was chosen as the residence of the Wittelsbach
family, the dukes of Bavaria; it later became (1506) the capital of the
dukedom. During the Thirty Years War, Munich was occupied (1632) by
Gustavus II of Sweden. In 1806 the city was made capital of the kingdom of
Under the kings Louis I (1825–48), Maximilian II (1848–64), and Louis
II (1864–86), Munich became a cultural and artistic center, and it
played a leading role in the development of 19th- and 20th-century German
After World War I the city was the scene of considerable political
unrest. National Socialism (Nazism) was founded there, and on Nov. 8,
1923, Adolf Hitler failed in his attempted Munich “beer-hall
putsch”—a coup aimed at the Bavarian government. Despite this fiasco,
Hitler made Munich the headquarters of the Nazi party, which in 1933 took
control of the German national government. Michael Cardinal Faulhaber, the
archbishop of Munich, was one of the few outspoken critics of the National
Socialist regime. In Sept., 1938, the Munich
Pact was signed in the city; in 1939 Hitler suppressed a Bavarian
separatist plot there. Munich was badly damaged during World War II, but
after 1945 it was extensively rebuilt and many modern buildings were
AccuWeather® 5-Day Forecast for
66°F / 18°C
49°F / 9°C
73°F / 22°C
53°F / 11°C
69°F / 20°C
44°F / 6°C
75°F / 23°C
55°F / 12°C
76°F / 24°C
48°F / 8°C
Last updated August 24, 2005 15:09 (EST)
Capital of Bavaria,
located in southern Germany
near the Bavarian Alps;
a commercial, industrial, transportation, communications, and cultural
Munich was the scene of the Nazi
party's rise to power; National Socialism (Nazism)
was founded there in 1918, and Adolf Hitler
led an attempted revolution in Munich in 1923, the Beer Hall Putsch.
Pact, drawn up in 1938, forced Czechoslovakia
to give up territory to the Nazis.
War II, the Allies
bombed much of the city. After the war, it was the largest city in the
American occupation zone.
The telephone dialing code for: Munich, Germany
The country code is : 49
Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and
The noun Munich has one meaning:
#1: the capital and largest city of Bavaria in southeastern
Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple
is the state capital of the German Bundesland
Munich is Germany's third largest city with a population of about 1.402
of 2004). It is located on the river Isar,
at 48°08′ N
11°34′ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=48_08_N_11_34_E_region:DE_type:city(1,402,000)).
The city's motto
is "Die Weltstadt mit Herz" (The world city with a heart).
Coat of Arms
The settlement was founded as Munichen in 1158
the Lion, Duke of Saxony,
and half a century later it was granted city status and fortified.
Initially, bishop Otto
von Freising (Freising)
and Henry quarreled about the city before the emperor at a Reichstag
held in Augsburg. In 1180,
with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto of
Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria. His Wittelsbach
dynasty would rule Bavaria until 1918.
the dukedom of Bavaria was split in two, and Munich became the residence
the entire city was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt some years later by Louis
IV, the ruling Holy
Roman Emperor of the time. In 1632
the city was occupied by Gustav
II Adolph of Sweden during the Thirty
Years' War and following 1705
it was under the control of the Habsburg
family for some years. The city's first academic institution, the Bavarian
Academy of Sciences, was founded in 1759.
By that time, the city was growing very quickly and was one of the
largest cities in mainland Europe.
it became the capital of the Bavarian monarchical state, with the state's
parliament (the Landtag)
and the new archdiocese
of Munich and Freising being located in the city. Twenty years later Landshut
University was moved to Munich.
Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were
built under the reigns of the kings Ludwig
I and Maximilian
II. These buildings include the Ruhmeshalle and those on Ludwigstraße
and Königsplatz, built by architects Leo
von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner,
and the "Bavaria" statue by Ludwig
Michael von Schwanthaler.
electric lighting was introduced to Munich, and the city hosted Germany's
first exhibition of electricity.
Nineteen years later the Hellabrunn
Zoo opened in the city. After World
War I, the city was at the center of much unrest. In November
took power establishing the Bavarian
Soviet Republic (Münchner
Räterepublik) which was put down on May
by the right wing Freikorps,
many of whom were later drawn to Adolf
Hitler and National
Socialism. In 1923
Hitler and his supporters, who then were concentrated in Munich, staged
Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar
Republic and seize power. But the revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's
arrest and the crippling of the Nazi
Party, which was virtually unknown outside Munich. However, the city
would once again become a Nazi stronghold when they took power in Germany
Because of its importance to the rise of Nazism, the Nazis called it Hauptstadt
der Bewegung ("capital of the movement"). The NSDAP
headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings")
were built around the Königsplatz, some of which have survived to this
Agreement was signed in the city, ceding the mostly German speaking Sudetenland,
previously a part of Czechoslovakia,
to Germany. It was signed by representatives of Germany,
A year later, in 1939,
Elser failed with his attempt to assassinate Hitler while the latter
was giving his annual speech to commemorate the Beer Hall Putsch in the Bürgerbräukeller
Munich was the city where the White
Rose (German: Die Weiße Rose), a group of students that formed
movement from June 1942
to February 1943,
was based. The core members were arrested following a distribution of
leaflets in Munich
University by Hans
and Sophie Scholl.
The city was very heavily damaged by allied bombing during World
War II. After American
occupation in 1945,
Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous and, by comparison to
other war-ravaged German cities, a rather conservative plan which
preserved its pre-war street grid.
Munich was the site of the 1972
Summer Olympics, during which Israeli
athletes were assassinated by Palestinian
massacre), where terrorist gunmen from the Palestinian "Black
September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic
team. A rescue attempt by the West
German government was unsuccessful and resulted in the deaths
of the Israeli hostages, 5 of the terrorists, and one German police
Several games of the 1974
Soccer World Cup were also held in the city and in 2006
it will again be host to several games, including the opening match of the
The Theatinerkirche on Odeonsplatz in the historic city centre
Munich is a popular tourist destination and has been described as
Germany's "second city".
The city has several important art museums,
among them the Alte
Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek,
and the Pinakothek der Moderne.
War I, it was also the site of the Blaue
Reiter group of artists.
Other famous tourist attractions include the English Garden (Englischer
Garten - a garden park roughly in the center of the city that
contains a nudist
area, jogging tracks and bridle-paths), the Deutsches
Museum (Science Museum), and the Rathaus-Glockenspiel,
an ornate clock
with moving figures atop the town hall. Perhaps Munich's most famous
attraction is the Oktoberfest,
a 2-week-long fair with many rides and several very large tents. The
Oktoberfest was first held October
in honor of the marriage of crown Prince Ludwig to Princess Therese von
Sachsen-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and
in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed
into what is now known as the Oktoberfest. Despite its name, Oktoberfest
actually begins in September. It lasts two weeks and always finishes on
the first Sunday in October.
Other famous buildings in Munich include the Frauenkirche
("Dom zu unserer Lieben Frau" - Cathedral of Our
Lady) and the Olympiaturm ("Olympic Tower"), where
visitors can be elevated on top. It is also an important radio and TV
The diamond-check version of the Munich flag (left) and the
Bavarian flag (right). The Frauenkirche is behind.
The Frauenkirche is the most famous building in the city center. This
is Munich's central cathedral and is famous for its twin towers which are
topped with brass minaret-type structures. At first glance the two towers
appear to be the same height but in actual fact one is slightly taller
than the other. Unlike most buildings in Munich's old town, the towers of
the Frauenkirche (but not the church itself) survived the war intact,
making them more than 400 years old. The Frauenkirche's towers (109 meters
or 358 feet tall) are also the measurement for a new rule which limits the
height of new buildings to the same height. This rule was passed in
November 2004 by the people of Munich in a referendum ("Bürgerentscheid")
organized by Georg Kronawitter, a former SPD mayor, against the will of
the political parties in the city's parliament ("Stadtrat") who
feared that it would harm the city's attractiveness to investors.
The Olympiaturm (Olympic Tower) and the Olympic Park with its
stadium was built for the 1972
Summer Olympics which were held in Munich. The Olympic buildings are
famous for their design, which was inspired by dew-covered cobwebs.
World Cup, however, will not take place in the traditional Olympic
Stadium, but in Munich's new soccer stadium, the Allianz
Headquarters building (one of the few buildings that have been
built from the top to the bottom) and the bowl shaped BMW museum
Lying on the plain of the Voralpenland,
the Munich agglomeration
sprawls unhindered by geography.
Several smaller traditional Bavarian cities are today part of the Munich
suburbia and are worth a visit when the main Munich sights are exhausted.
Schloß Oberschleißheim (Oberschleissheim
Munich was one of the centers of the new economy in Germany, and
remains to be a centre for biotechnology, programming and Internet
companies in Germany. The city is home to the global headquarters of
German insurance companies Allianz
AG and Münchener
Rück, the car manufacturer BMW,
the technology firms Siemens
AG and Infineon
Technologies, as well as the German headquarters of McDonald’s
In addition to this, Munich is home to a big number of publishing houses,
worldwide second only to New York City.
Residents of Munich enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting
consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with highest quality
of life worldwide. The 2005 survey rated Munich as 5th. Munich enjoys a
thriving economy - principally information technology, biotechnology, and
publishing. Environmental pollution is low, although currently the city is
concerned about levels of fine dust in the air. The public transport is
extremely efficient, although delays on the S-Bahn (light commuter trains)
often cause frustration during extreme winter weather. The crime rate is
very low and personal safety is high. This high quality of life and safety
has caused the city to be nicknamed a "Toytown" - particularly
amongst the English speaking residents.
Nightlife is thriving. There are over 6,000 licensed establishments in
the city. Cafe culture is strong in Munich, especially during the summer
of course. There are many restaurants accommodating all preferences of
cuisine. And possibly the most important free time activity during the
summer: the beer gardens. There are around 20 major beer gardens with four
of the most famous and popular being located in the Englischer
Garten - the largest city park in Europe.
Munich's current mayor is Christian Ude of the SPD
(Social-democratic Party of Germany), and Munich has a nearly unbroken
history of SPD governments since World War II. This is extraordinary
because the rest of Bavaria is a conservative stronghold, with the CSU
(Christian Social Union) winning absolute
majorities among the Bavarian electorate in nearly all elections
communal, state and federal level.
The figure on Munich's coat-of-arms is the Münchner
Kindl, the child of Munich (a monk).
named after Franz
Josef Strauß, is Franz
Josef Strauß International Airport. The airport can be reached by
suburban train lines S1 and S8. Its international
three-letter code is "MUC".
Munich has a large public transport system including Subways,
trains, trams and buses. The local transportation is supervised by the
Munich Transport and Tariff Association (Münchner
Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (http://www.mvv-muenchen.de/en/index.html)).
Colleges and universities
Universität der Bundeswehr München,
founded in 1973
Hochschule für Musik und Theater München,
founded in 1830
Akademie der Bildenden Künste München,
founded in 1808
Hochschule für Fernsehen und Film
, founded in 1966
Hochschule für Philosophie München,
founded in 1925 in Pullach, moved to
Munch in 1971
Hochschule für Politik München
Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München,
founded in 1971
European School of Management and
Max Plank Institute Garching
with information in both English and German
of Munich, Sights, Daily Life, Oktoberfest, etc.
This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia.
It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full
Translations for: Munich
n. - Munique
n. - Munich
中国话 (Simplified Chinese)
n. - 慕尼黑
中國話 (Traditional Chinese)
n. - 慕尼黑
n. - מינכן
If you are unable to view some languages clearly, click here.
The best way to get around Europe is a train pass. I know. I have visited
Europe more than twenty times. I never rented a car. The trains of Europe are
fantastic. And a bargain as well,
Read about my suggestions for what I can EurailHotel to save money. Click HERE.
For more than 60 years, Rail Europe has been showing North Americans what
Europeans have known all along: the best way to travel in Europe is on the
trains! Find information about Eurail passes, Point to point tickets and high speed
trains like the TGV and Eurostar (the channel tunnel train)! Click this button
for more details on this excellent travel tool.
If you eventually do plan to go to Europe, here are some tips I offer to help you have a great time.