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Switzerland Language Online

Switzerland residents use any of three main languages. German, French, Italian, or Romansch. 
Online language aids are given for German first, then French, Italian, then Romansch.

German Language

The Germanic languages departed from the other Indo-European languages by a shift in sounds called the First Germanic Sound Shift, and by other distinguishing features as well. More detail can be found here.

The language we now call German departed from the other Germanic languages (mainly English, Dutch, Scandinavian and the now extinct Gothic) by a shift in sounds called the Second Germanic Sound Shift. Its effect can still be seen by comparing modern German words with their English cognates: pound->Pfund, pipe->Pfeife, hope->hoffen, apple->Apfel, plant->Pflanze, tide->Zeit, cat->Katze, heart->Herz, hate->hassen, make->machen, weak->weich.

The rules for this sound shift are:
p->f, pp->pf, t->ss, tt->ts (written [t]z), k->ch, kk->kch, where initial p, t and k are treated like their doubled counterparts. The p->(p)f shift is quite regular, and so is the t->(t)s shift, which is somewhat blurred by the later differentiation between tz and ss. The k->(k)ch shift, however, is fully in effect only in Swiss German; in standard German and in most of its dialects we find kk (written [c]k) instead of kch. (The characters in square brackets are not written initially in a syllable.)

The Second Sound Shift divides Germany into a smaller Northern part (without the sound shift) and a larger central and Southern part (with the sound shift). The border between the two regions approximates a line passing through Cologne (Köln) and Berlin, but there is a more or less fuzzy region of more than a hundred kilometres width south of that line where the language underwent the Seconds Sound Shift only partially. In Western Germany, for instance, the non-initial t (e.g. dat and wat instead of das and was) reaches much farther south than most of the other non-shifted sounds. There are several central German dialects that have neither initial p nor pf, but f instead. The other countries where German is spoken are all south of this line. More

Language borrowing

Young children attend a Kindergarten (children's garden). Gesundheit doesn't really mean "bless you," it means "health" -- the good variety being implied. Psychiatrists speak of Angst (fear) and Gestalt (form) psychology, and when something is broken, it's kaputt. Although not every English-speaker knows that Fahrvergnügen is "driving pleasure," most do know that Volkswagen means "people's car." Musical works can have a Leitmotiv. Our cultural view of the world is called a Weltanschauung by historians or philosophers. Such terms are commonly understood by most well-read English-speakers.

More English words borrowed from German:
(Notice how many have to do with food!) - blitz, blitzkrieg, cobalt, dachshund, delicatessen, ersatz, frankfurter, glockenspiel, hinterland, infobahn (for "information highway"), kaffeeklatsch, Munster and Limburger (cheeses named for German cities), pilsner (glass, beer), pretzel, quartz, rucksack, sauerkraut, schnaps, (apple) strudel, waltz, wiener. From Low German: brake, dote, tackle.

Germanic cognate terms:
(Shared in common; mostly family-related words, parts of the body, and old basic words) - der Arm, der Ball, der Bruder, die Hand, das Haus, das Ende, das Gold, gut (good), der Finger, lang, der Mann, die Maus, Montag (Monday), die Mutter, der Vater, die Schwester (sister), der Sohn, die Tochter (daughter), das Wasser, das Wort (word).

English in German:
The following German words have been borrowed from English. Usually the only difference is the use of the German article (the - der, die, or das - masc., fem., neu.) and the capitalization used for all German nouns. The pronunciation is usually similar to English, but sometimes with a unique German twist. They are usually German's more recent borrowings. English terms: das Baby, der Babysitter, babysitten (to babysit), das Bodybuilding, das Callgirl, der Clown, der Cocktail, der Computer, fit (in good shape), die Garage, das Golf (der Golf is "the gulf" or a VW model), das Hobby, der Job, joggen (to jog), der Killer, killen (to kill), der Lift (elevator), der Manager, managen (to manage), das Musical, der Playboy, der Pullover, der Rum, der Smog, der Snob, der Streik, das Team, der Teenager, das Ticket, der Tunnel, der Trainer (coach), der Waggon (train car).

Loan Words from French (Französisch)
The following German words look like English words, but they are actually words from French that both English and German have adopted. They are more recent than the Latin borrowings below. French borrowings include: das Abenteuer (adventure), die Armee, das Ballett, die Chance, fein (fine), galoppieren, der General, die Infanterie, die Kanone, die Lanze (lance), der Offizier, die Parade, die Parole (saying, motto),der Platz (place, square), der Preis (prize, price), der Prinz, die Prinzessin, der Tanz (dance), die Uniform.

Loan Words from Latin (Latein)
Both English and German have borrowed heavily from Latin. Latin was the language of the universities in Germany and the rest of Europe during the Middle Ages. Because such words are very old and have undergone changes over the centuries, some are not very obvious equivalents. For example, the German word Birne comes from Latin pirum which gave us the English word pear. Some other Latin loan words: aktiv, der Altar, der Atlas, die Disziplin, der Esel (ass, donkey), das Examen, die Feige (fig), das Fieber (fever), der Kaiser (Caesar, emperor), die Kammer (chamber), die Kamera, der Kanzler (chancellor), der Keller (cellar), das Klima, das Kloster (cloister), das Kreuz (cross), die Lilie (lily), der Markt (market), die Meile (mile), das Münster (minster, church), die Münze (money, coin), opfern (to offer, sacrifice), die Pforte (portal), das Pfund (pound), die Rose, der Student/die Studentin, die Tafel (tablet), der Wein (wine).

The German Umlaut ("diaeresis" in English)
The two dots sometimes placed over the German vowels a, o, and u are known as an Umlaut. The umlauted vowels ä, ö and ü (and their capitalized equivalents Ä, Ö, Ü) are actually a shortened form for ae, oe and ue respectively. At one time the e was placed above the vowel, but as time went by the e transformed into just two dots. In telegrams and in plain (ASCII) computer text the umlauted forms still appear as ae, oe and ue. A German typewriter or computer keyboard includes separate keys for the three umlauted characters (plus the ß, the so-called "sharp s" character). The umlauted letters are distinct from plain a, o, or u, and they are pronounced differently.

The Swiss-Germans have managed to get along just fine without the ß for many years, and with the new spelling reforms being introduced in all three German-speaking countries, Switzerland may not be alone much longer. For more about Rechtschreibreform see the New German Spelling Rules from a German Web site.

Free Online German Course
From About.com

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It's a doozy!
The English expression "doozy" (also "doozie") -- as in "Man, that one was a real doozy!" -- comes from the name of German-American car maker Frederick S. Duesenberg (1877-1932, born in Lippe, Germany) and his luxurious high-powered Duesenberg roadster. The American-built Duesenberg SJ could reach speeds of 130 mph (210 km/h). The Duesenberg Motor Company produced its streamlined, elegant motor cars from 1917 to 1937 to compete with similar expensive roadsters such as the Italian Bugatti.

On a related but different note, "Dear Doosie" by Werner Lansburgh (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag) is a humorous love story that plays off of the German Du / Sie problem -- hence the title. Written in an interesting mix of English and German, the book can be read by anyone with at least an intermediate command of German and a good German-English dictionary. Written in the form of a series of letters, "Dear Doosie" has fun with the hazards of learning another language, in this case, a German learning English. But the book is also helpful for English-speaking learners of German -- and an amusing read besides.

 NOTE: This book may be available from Amazon.de.

 

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The Germans have a word for it

English may have more vocabulary than any other language, but that doesn't mean it has a word for everything. Every language has words and expressions that are unique and very difficult or impossible to translate into another language. The Eskimos, contrary to popular legend, do NOT really have fifty words for snow, but German gemütlich takes several words to explain in English: cozy, comfortable, warm, inviting, and hospitable. Sometimes these words or expressions are adopted wholesale into another language -- Kindergarten and Gesundheit (health), for example, from German into English. But more often the word is just unknown in other languages. German is a rich language that has words and turns of phrases that have no equal in English. (The reverse is just as true, of course.)

German makes certain distinctions that English does not. For English "to know" German has two words, each reflecting the difference between knowing something through understanding (wissen) and knowing something through recognition (kennen). A German can also understand immediately from the use of one of two distinct verbs whether an object has been "put" on a surface in a standing (stellen) or a lying (legen) position. When it comes to eating, animals and humans in German have two different words: fressen is used for non-humans, while people essen.

Some German expressions, such as Schadenfreude (a malicious pleasure or gloating over another's misfortune), don't really have an English equivalent. ("Crocodile tears" -- Krokodiltränen -- aren't really the same thing.) The adjective überfragt (lit., "over-asked," as in "Da bin ich überfragt." "You've got me there. I don't have the answer.") has no one-word English equivalent either.

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German slang and colorful expressions

One common mistake made by beginning language learners is to assume that expressions can be translated word-for-word from one language into another. (See "A Dictionary Can Be a Dangerous Thing" above.) They'll take an expression such as "to bite the dust" and render it into something like "zu beissen den Staub." Besides its word order problems (the phrase would go "den Staub beissen" in German), this literal translation makes absolutely no sense to a German-speaker. In the German language, when one "bites the dust," one actually "bites into the grass" (ins Gras beissen), perhaps because Germany is much greener than the wild West associated with this expression in English, although the German expression goes all the way back to the 16th century. More

Colorful Expressions

Cognates These are words which mean the same in German as in English. There is probably a slight difference in pronunciation. But the words are the same in both languages. By working on lists like this, vocabulary in a foreign language increases dramatically.

Additional resources with things which may be familiar to you:

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more cognates

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Dilberts Comic der Woche

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noch mehr Comics other comics

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check out advertising bloopers in various foreign countries

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Juma Magazine a German for youth online magazine

For vocabulary expansion, try these:

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German vocabulary

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Deutsche Vokabeln

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Einwortdeutsch words of one syllable with some explanation (in English)

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List of idioms

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German slang translated

The BBC offers online German Language training. MORE.

Simple Expressions

Pronunciation Guide

Übungen: Worksheets

 

These worksheets are drill instruments: use them to repeat new forms to yourself as an aid to memorization. Repeat the drill until it "feels" natural to supply the right answer.

They are best used with a study partner as an oral exercise: read the examples to each other and practice the variations. Be sure you are practicing the correct answers: check the answer key often.

To use the worksheets as written exercises or practice tests, you can print them out. Many exercises are also available in "self-correcting" form to be scored on-line.

Save paper by selecting, copying and pasting the exercise into a new document in your favorite word-processing program before printing.

Verben (Verbs)

  1. Introductory Level Worksheet: Nominative Pronouns, Present Tense of Regular Verbs, Question Words 

  2. Verben mit Stammvokabeländerung: Übung 1,Übung 2, Übung 3 (3 exercises on verbs with stem-vowel changes)

  3. Verben: haben, sein, wissen & geben, Übung 1, Übung 2

  4. Verben im Präsens und im Perfekt (Present and Present Perfect Tenses of Regular and Irregular Verbs)

  5. Imperativ Grundstufe 1, Grundstufe 2, Grundstufe 3 (3 basic exercises with the imperative)
  6. Das Präteritum von haben, sein und Modalverben (simple past tense of "haben," "sein" and modal-verbs)

  7. Das Präteritum regelmäßiger Verben (simple past tense of regular verbs)

  8. Infinitiv und Präteritumformen (matching infinitives with past-tense stems of strong verbs)

  9. Präteritum: Vorbereitung für Prüfung (exercise with simple past and past perfect)

  10. Das Präteritum verschiedener Verben aus 'Schlüsselkind'

  11. Das Präteritum und das Perfekt in "Viel zu Spät"

  12. Simple Past and Relative Pronouns: Hiddensee

  13. Verbs with Fixed Prepositions

Substantive und Pronomina

  1. "der"-Wörter im Nominativ & Akkusativ

  2. Schwaches Maskulinum

  3. Negation with "kein"

  4. Accusative Pronouns

  5. Kennen, Akkusativ, Pronomina 

  6. Dative Pronouns

  7. Dativ: Gespräch I

  8. Dativ: Gespräch II

  9. Special Expressions with Dative Case

  10. Special Expressions with Dative II

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Präpositionen

  1. auf
  2. in

Reflexive Verben

  1. Reflexive Verben mit Akkusativ und Dativ

  2. Reflexive Verben: Matching Exercise

  3. Reflexive Verbenliste mit Übungen

Adjektive

  1. Schwache Adjektivendungen

  2. Starke Adjektivendungen

  3. Starke Adjektivendungen II

  4. Vergleiche: Ferientage

  5. Vergleiche: Länder

Wortstellung

  1. Subordinate Clauses

  2. Subordinating and Coordinating Conjunctions: Konjunktionen

  3. Time, Manner and Place in the Inner Field

Subjunctive I

Subjunctive II

Wortschatz

 

Lesestücke

 

 

 

French Language

Information from The French American Cultural Foundation

The Romance languages are a group of closely related vernaculars descended from the LATIN LANGUAGE, a member of the Italic branch of INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. The designation Romance is derived from the Latin phrase romanica loqui, "to speak in Roman fashion," which attests to the popular, rather than literary, origins of the languages.

The Romance languages that have acquired national standing as the official tongues of their countries are French, with approximately 98 million speakers living principally in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, and parts of Africa; Italian, with 65 million speakers in Italy, Switzerland, and parts of Africa; Portuguese, with 137 million speakers in Portugal, Brazil, and parts of Africa and Asia; Spanish, with 231 million speakers in Spain, Latin America, and parts of the Caribbean; and Romanian, with 25 million speakers in Romania and other parts of the Balkans.

Several distinct Romance languages function as non-national, regional vernaculars. Among these are Rheto-Romance, or Rhaetian, which consists of a group of related languages spoken in Switzerland, where they are called Romansch, and in northern Italy, where they are called Ladin or Friulian. In southern France, Provençal, or Occitan, is spoken by about 12 million people. Formerly more unified as a literary language, Provençal now consists of a series of local dialects.

Romance creoles, whose origins are found in PIDGINS or simplified trade languages, have also sprung up around the world. Haitian and Louisiana French are such languages, as are the varieties of Portuguese found in Macao and Goa.

From the evidence of Latin grammarians, popular playwrights, and inscriptions, it is apparent that in Republican Rome the spoken language of the lower classes was undergoing modifications in pronunciation and grammar that ultimately were to differentiate it from the written language and the language of the privileged. During the period of empire and Roman expansion, it was this Latin of the people, so-called Vulgar Latin, that was carried to the far-flung provinces by soldiers, merchants, and colonists.

Not all provinces were Romanized at the same time, however. Sicily and Sardinia were colonized as early as 238 BC, while Dacia--modern Romania--did not come under Roman occupation until about AD 100. In the provinces, Vulgar Latin underwent further modification by the subjugated peoples, who brought to it their own speech habits and pronunciation influenced by their own indigenous languages. The Iberians, for example, pronounced Latin one way, whereas the Gauls pronounced it another.

The collapse of the empire's frontiers during the 5th century under the thrust of Germanic tribes left Rome cut off from the provinces, and the outer regions drifted apart as each modified its form of spoken Latin in unique ways. In every region of the former Latin-speaking world, the emerging Romance languages then in turn began to break up among themselves.

French and Provençal

In Gallo-Roman France, a split occurred between north and south, assisted by incursions of Germanic-speaking Franks--whence the name "France"--into the north. Here, too, further dialectalization occurred throughout the Middle Ages, resulting in a multitude of speech forms such as Francien, Picard, Norman, Lorrain, and Walloon. Southern French, or Provençal, split into Languedocien, Auvergnat, and many other dialects. The dialect of Paris gradually became the national language, however, because of the political prestige of the capital and today is accepted as the model for the French language.

The Case System

Broadly speaking, the trend or direction of change in the Romance languages has been to reduce the Latin case system through elimination of the distinctive endings. The Latin word porta, "door," for instance, had three singular forms: nominative, vocative, and ablative porta; accusative portam; and genitive and dative portae. Modern Romance languages, however, use only one singular form: French porte, Italian and Portuguese porta, and Spanish puerta. Other modern Romance linguistic features include the elimination of neuter gender, the development of the definite article, greater use of prepositions, stricter word order, and the emergence of auxiliary verbs to express tense.

Verb Paradigms

French leveled the verb paradigms to such an extent that subject pronouns became mandatory (contrast French je chante, "I sing," with Italian canto); but in general the Latin paradigm has remained intact.

Notable in phonology was the loss of opposition between Latin long and short vowels, the voicing of intervocalic voiceless consonants, and in some languages the loss of syllable- and word-final s. The emergence of accentual patterns led to the reduction or loss of many unstressed vowels in the more heavily accented languages such as Gallo-Roman and Old French, and to the diphthongization of some stressed vowels in most of the Romance languages. Only in French and Portuguese, however, did vowels before a nasal consonant undergo nasalization--compare French main, "hand," with Portuguese mao and Spanish and Italian mano.

Basque

Basque, or Euskara, is a language spoken by about a million people in northern Spain and southwestern France. Although attempts have been made to link it to ancient Iberian, the Hamito-Semitic group, and Caucasian, its origins remain uncertain.

The sound pattern resembles that of Spanish, with its five pure vowels and such peculiarities as a trilled r and palatal n and l. In spite of this, and the presence of numerous Latinate loanwords, Basque has maintained its distinctiveness throughout two millennia of external contacts. For example, it still places a unique emphasis on suffixes to denote case and number and to form new words.

Basque is the only language remaining of those spoken in southwestern Europe before the Roman conquest. Since the 10th century, it has gradually been supplanted by Castilian Spanish, and under the Franco regime its use in Spain was outlawed altogether. The ethnic insularity of the Basques, however, has fostered revivals. Attempts are now being made to standardize the orthography.

Creole

Creole languages are fully formed languages that develop from a PIDGIN language and gradually become the primary language of a linguistic community. As the domains of the use of the pidgin language expand, often with the development of a LINGUA FRANCA used for communication between different groups, it develops lexically and becomes phonologically and grammatically more complex. When the pidgin replaces the community's original language, it is called a creole.

Widely distributed throughout the world, creolized languages are native to between 10 and 15 million people. Different creoles share many common features, such as an outward simplicity and regularity that is believed to reflect universal linguistic processes.

Most creole languages have vocabularies derived from major European languages. French-based Creole is found in Haiti, Mauritius, the French Overseas Departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion, and Guyana, in Dominica and St. Lucia, and, although disappearing, in various British-influenced Caribbean islands and in southwestern Louisiana.

When creole coexists with the language on which it is lexically based, it blends with the base language to form a decreolization continuum. Except for Tok Pisin, which has semiofficial status in Papua New Guinea, and Creole, endowed with a semicodified orthography in Haiti, creoles still bear the stigma of their pidgin origin and their association with slavery and social inferiority. They are vernaculars that are not thought appropriate for administrative, educational, and literary functions. MORE

 

MORE details about the history of the French Language.

Translation Tool

TV Search

MORE from Google

City College of San Francisco, California, has a great collection of French Language Links. Click HERE for the page. Here is a sample:

Writing and Reference Tools

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Use Le notepad to easily add accent marks to your text. When you're done writing, cut and paste your document into a word processor.

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How to type in accent marks on your computer

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French Verb Conjugator

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French-English Dictionary

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French Grammar Guidebook from eLanguage.

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Terminologie technique

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TLFi: Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé -Le TLF est un dictionnaire des XIXe et XXe siècles en 16 volumes et 1 supplément. Le TLFi est la version informatisée du TLF. French/French dictionary with definitions, history, and sound. The site is in French.

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Language Learning Links

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Study French online through City College of San Francisco.

Text Book Sites

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French On-line Grammar Quiz to accompany Allons-y

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Web Exercises from CCSF (to accompany Allons-y)

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Check out the Allons-y website from Heinle and Heinle. Try the Autocorrigés.

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Supplementary exercises to accompany The French Experience . Here you'll find links to video, audio, interactive exercises, and more.

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French Experience Audio Exercises. Audio files and interactive exercises about the following topics:
1.Nationality 2.Family 3.Work/Education 4.Parisian Life 5.Cuisine

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French in Action for Students A collection of exercises and activities to accompany French in Action. From Yale University Press.

Other Language Learning Sites

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Basic Pronunciation pages - This page contains links to pages where you can hear the alphabet, the days of the week, months of the year, etc.

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French from eLanguage. Try Virtual Talk. Speech recognition allows you to practice your French conversation.

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French Grammar Central This is the most complete list of French grammar sites on the web.

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Français Interactif - from the University of Texas. Grammar and vocabulary, audio and video.

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FrenchLesson.org - Grammar explanations, pronunciation pages. A great resource for learners of French.

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The French Tutorial Many sound files.

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languageguide.org - See the picture, read the text, hear the pronunciation. Alphabet, numbers, many categories of vocabulary. A wonderful resource. Click here for the companion French grammar guide.

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Lexique - FLE - Thematic lessons with sound and exercises. Great!

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Real French from Manchester Metropolitan University in England. Check the message boards for students of French, France Virtuelle (view relevant links and answers questions about the Metro, movies, music and shopping), vocabulary games; includes an abundance of useful grammar exercises.

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Tex's French Grammar: la grammaire de l'absurde from the University of Texas, Austin. This site has it all! Grammar explanations, exercises, sound files, and humor. Check it out.

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Web Exercises from the University of Texas, Austin

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Weboscope Collection of resources from Belgium for learning French.

Le français en affaires

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Le français en affaires au Québec et en Amérique du Nord Fabulous site from Québec with information about letter writing, resumés, and other business conventions.

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French Search Engines/Moteurs de recherche

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Nomade

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La Toile du Québec

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Yahoo!France

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Web Antilles

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WoYaa! Internet Africa (en français)

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Other French Search Engines

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Le Français à San Francisco

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L'Alliance Française - Check the events section for films and for Rendez-Vous Littéraires, some featuring CCSF student (and AF prof) David Rafoni.

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Bay Area Francophile List - Subscribe to this list to receive a list of all the Bay Area events for francophiles. Very complete. Edited by CSU Sonoma professor Suzanne C. Toczyski.

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Le Café Musée - Don't miss the exciting art history presentations by CCSF instructor Renée Morel. All in French, with refreshments.

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Le Cercle français - CCSF's own French club. Ask your French instructor for details. Enjoy films, dinners, and other activities with your fellow students and instructors who love everything French.

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Consulat Général de France de San Francisco - Site of the SF French Consulate.

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Pen Pals/Correspondants/Conversation

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FranceWorld

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MOO français Visit the MOO and meet people from throughout the Francophone world. See the Unofficial Guide for Using the MOO français for instructions on how to use it. (The MOO is rarely used these days.)

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Chat at AboutFrench.com.

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Media

Print resources

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Le Monde

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Paris Match

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Elle

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Libération

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Presse francophone Links to publications throughout the French speaking world.

Radio, TV, Video

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LangMedia - French in France - from the Five College Center for the Study of World Languages. Videos of native speaker organized by the following categories: Basic Communications, Culture and Social Life, Necessities, Shopping and Services, Transportation.

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LangMedia - French Combined Index - more from the Five College Center for the Study of World Languages. Video clips of native French speakers in Canada, Martinique, Morocco, Senegal, and Luxembourg organized into the same categories. A wonderful resource!

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Canal Afrique: Programmes en Français

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Commeaucinema.com - Toute l'actualité cinéma sur internet. Find out what films are currently playing in France. Choose "Bandes-Annonces" to see a list of movie trailers en français!

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Francetv.fr Choose from 3 channels, France2, France3, France5

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French Radio on-line

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French TV on-line Complete alphabetical list of online TV.

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Radio Canada

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Points de départ

Some of the best organized and most complete French resources

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ClicNet

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France Resources from the UC Berkeley Library

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French Language from About.com. You'll find many links to resources on everything French.

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Guide de l'internet culturel Cultural links from the French Minister of Culture

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HAPAX

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Le Quartier français du village planétaire

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Open Directory Project - French language version. This site strives to be the definitive catalog of the Web. It is developed and maintained by a community of "net-citizens" who are experts in their areas of interest.

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Tennessee Bob's Famous French Links http://www.bestonlinecollege.org/tennessee-bobs-famous-french-links/

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Voyages/Explorations

France

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Château de Versailles The official site of the Château de Versailles!

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Le Cimitière du Père-Lachaise Photos, history, etc.

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Civilisation française

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France: Régions et pays from the French Ministry of Culture

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French Cathedrals, Basilicas, and Churches at Globegate

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L'Internet culturel from the French Ministry of Culture (list of regional and city web sites in France)

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Les Pages de Paris

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Les Photos de Villes (Les Pages jaunes) Enter an address, then see a photo of the place! Really neat. See photos of Paris, Lyon, Nantes, Lille, Nice, Marseille, or Toulouse. Une ville, une adresse, une photo, et un plan!

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Paris - Official site of the Ville de Paris

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PariServeAll Paris on the Web

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La Tour Eiffel - The Official Site of the Eiffel Tower

D'autres pays francophones

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Afrique francophone - An excellent collection of links to sites in and about Francophone Africa from Lehman College. You'll find print, sound, and video resources, general and organized by country.

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L'Afrique Francophone Virtuelle

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Agence de la FrancophonieSite of the official organization of the 49 francophone countries.

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Art and Life in Africa Online A project of the University of Iowa. Much information concerning many countries in Africa where French is spoken.

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L'écriture au Vietnam Virtual exposition from the French Ministry of Culture; a history of writing in Vietnam

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French Guiana Resources from LANIC

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MontréalCAM Many views of Montréal.

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Pays et communautés francophones from ClicNet. Wonderful list of links to info from/for/about Francophone countries everywhere.

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Le Royaume de Maroc Site of the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication of Morocco. In French and in English.

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Senegal

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Venez Voir Le Sénégal is an exploration of the Francophone world developed by Colby professors and technologists. This website centers around six short video clips shot in and around Dakar, narrated in French with links to French transcriptions. You will need the free Quicktime Player installed on your machine to view the clips. NEW!

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Vietnam - Site photographique.

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Virtual Guidebook to Tahiti and French Polynesia - Panoramas allow you to see what you'd see if you were there.

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Vieux Montréal

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Virtual Francophone Tourism

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Musées

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Centre Georges Pompidou

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Expositions virtuelles from the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication

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Musée d'Histoire Naturelle

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Musée d'Orsay

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Musée Rodin

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Musée virtuel du Louvre

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Expositions

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Réunion des musées nationaux

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WebMuseum

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Paris-art.com presents "(presque) tout l'art contemporain à Paris)

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Musique

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Chanter! Toute la chanson francophone- Aznavour à Zebda

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IRCAM

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Musique from Yahoo France

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Resonnances d'Afrique Information about the music of Africa and those who make it. In French with some short audio files available.

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Radio Casablanca Listen to the top ten tunes in Morocco (Maroc)

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RFI musiqueFind out what's playing on the radio in France. Read bios of artists and groups, hear their music, hear live broadcasts.

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http://www.paroles.net/ABC de la Chanson Francophone

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Shopping

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La FNAC

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Galeries Lafayette

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La Redoute

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Stores and Shops from the Paris Pages

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Sports

bullet

Rallye Paris Dakar

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Roland Garros The official site of the French Open

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Sports from Yahoo France

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World Cup France98 Online

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Web-TV "exclusivement sur le web" accesses "Canal-Sports"

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Littérature

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ABU Bibliothèque universelle from CNAM (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers)

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Archivox - La littérature comme vous ne l'avez jamais entendue! Listen to works of French litterature; fables, short stories, and more. Texts are also provided.

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Femmes écrivains et littérature africaine francophone There is also a modified version in English.

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Gallica Online literature project of France's Bibliothèque Nationale.

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Littérature from the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication

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Poésie francophone from the Club des poètes

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Société Diderot

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Games

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Chloé ou Les aventures d'une Parisienne A fun comic strip for learners of French.

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Polar-FLE - Apprendre le français avec l'inspecteur Roger Duflair - - Learn French while you play an exciting mystery game from the Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.

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Ressources diverses

bullet

Astérix

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Recettes de cuisine et traditions en France

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Sounds of the World's Animals Find out what animals say in French!

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Tintin

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Traditions de Noël en France et au Canada

 

Satellite TV Search

French American Clubs

High School Clubs

Learning from Francophone LINK plus a sample of the content follows:

 The purpose of this site is to make available in one place for learners of French, the principal interactive audio and video sites for francophone television and radio stations (except the last section). The Globe-Gate Research intends that the site become a learning resource center for listening and viewing comprehension, and to that end, we have included a resource page for obtaining appropriate audio software , a bibliography of recent articles on foreign-language listening comprehension, and our own introduction: "Listening Comprehension: Some Notions and Strategies" . This, our second edition, contains 80 links to sounds and video images of the Francophone world, divided into television and radio. The second category is further divided by geographic region. You can listen to or watch a whole newscast, listen live to talk radio or your favorite musical genre. --------

Digital Resources

Television and Video

Les Archives de guerre (extraits video de l'INA)
ARTE (voir "RealVideo - grand format [emissions courrantes])
La Semaine sur ARTE en RealVideo (un clip par jour)
La Chaine Cyber (France, en direct, par abonnement)
CosmoRadio (emission de Canal+ avec des archives en realaudio)
FranceLink - TV (tons of RealAudio and video documents)
France2 (avec des selections RealAudio)
France 3 (avec RealVideo des selections audio)
France 3 Journaux (RealAudio/video)
France Supervision - le magazine (avec des bandes d'annonces Quicktime et MPEG)
Le Guide Video de France 2 (RealAudio/video)
M6 Bordeau - le 6 Minutes du jour (RealAudio archives)
M6Music - artistes (RealAudio)
Previsions Meteo de France 3 (RealAudio/video)
Teleshopping-TF1 (avec RealVideo)
TVA Actualites (Canada, manchettes video de videotron)
Le Web de Canal+ (des clips RealAudio ici et la)

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French and European Radio

ACCENT4 - la radio Classique d'Alsace (avec RealAudio 32kb et 80kb)
Audiosup (France, radio sur demande, avec RealAudio)
CBFPT (radio belge avec des clips RealAudio)
CIBL 101,5 FM - La Radio libre (avec realaudio en direct et livecam)
Europe2 (Bordeaux, en direct avec realaudio)
Europe2 Strasbourg (actualites realaudio)
France Info (actualites par realaudio)
Frequence Banane - radio universitaire suisse (avec des documents audio)
Fun Radio - libre antenne et musique (avec realaudio en directe)
Les Magazines de RFI Monde en francais (avec realaudio)
Matin Premiere de RTBF (avec le "Journal Parle" RealAudio)
Maurice Radio Libre (en direct avec RealAudio)
NRJ - radio musicale francaise (avec realaudio)
QUARTERNET - le point d'exes internet (service d'acces audio/video payant)
RADIO CAMPUS LILLE - 106,6 MHz (avec RealAudio en directe)
RCF (Radio Chretienne Francaise, avec des fiches realaudio)
Radio Contact en "live" avec Internet Explorer 3.0)
Radio FG 98.2 Paris (with a wav jingle)
Radio FG Paris, DJ Radio (RealAudio en direct)
Radio France Belfort-Montbeliard 106,8 (RealAudio en directe)
Radio France Creuse (94,3 FM, radio locale avec realaudio)
Radio France (actualites et en direct par realaudio)
Radio France Internationale (en direct avec realaudio)
Radio France - Le Mouv' (radio des jeunes, avec RealAudio)
Radio France Provence (en direct avec RealAudio)
Radio J - La Radio juive de Paris (with realaudio)
Radio Notre Dame (radio chretienne, en directe avec RealAudio)
Radio Occitania (avec des illustrations sonores en format WAV et realaudio)
Radio Prague en francais (avec realaudio)
95.9 Radio Pulsar (France, en directe avec RealAudio)
Radio Suisse Romande (avec les actualites en realaudio)
Radio Suisse Romande - radio a la demande (4 emissions en RealAudio)
RadioVie (radio chretienne, en direct bientot avec RealAudio)
RFI (Informations avec realaudio ou streamworks)
RTBF radio (Radio-Television Belge avec realaudio)
RTL (radio avec realaudio, telechargeable)
RTL2 en direct (musique avec realaudio)
Skyrock Bordeaux 102,8 (avec realaudio en directe)
Videotheque de Musique Plus (base de donnees de 33,000 clips)
WIT FM (Bordeau, utile "Streamworks")

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North America

CFOU 89.1 FM (Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, en directe RealAudio)
CHLT 630 Radio Media (Sherbrooke, en directe avec RealAudio)
Chroniques d'Outre-Mer de RFO (fichier hebdomadaire en RealAudio)
CISM 89,3 FM (radio etudiante de l'Universite de Montreal)
CKFM (Montreal, Radio Energie, en direct avec Widows Media Player)
CREM Radio 108.9 FM (CEGEP Montmorency, Quebec, en direct avec RealPlayer Plus)
CKOI (radio de Montreal en direct avec RealAudio et annonces en Quicktime)
ICS 89.7 et 103.9 (radio martiniquaise, en directe avec RealAudio)
PIF,82 (radio Laval, sequences Midi, extraits RealAudio)
La radio AM de Radio-Canada (en direct avec RealAudio)
La radio FM de Radio-Canada (en direct avec RealAudio)
Radio-Canada, Sports (avec video de RealAudio)
Radio Caraibes International (en ligne avec RealAudio)
Radio Ville Marie (Quebec, actualites religieuses en RealAudio)
Radio Rive Sud (Quebec, en direct avec RealAudio ou le G2 beta)
Service realaudio multilangue de Radio Canada Internationale (francais)
Radio Ciel - FM 98,5 (Canada, avec realaudio)
Rock Detente FM 107.3 Montreal (Realaudio with webcam)
Vision 2000, 99.3 FM (Haiti, en directe avec RealAudio)

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Africa, Asia, Ociania

Nostalgie (radio Abijan, Liberville, Dakar, Lome, en direct avec RealAudio)
Radio Casablanca (realaudio and video)
Radio-Tunis Live (realaudio, some French)
Radiodffusion Television Senegalaise (en direct avec Microsoft NetShow)
RFI Afrique (Informations en continu specifiques Afrique, avec realaudio)
VOA daily radio news broadcast to French- speaking Africa (audio 8-10 minutes)
VOA Internet Audio RealAudio Server (Look for "French-to-Africa...)
Walf FM (radio senegalaise en live avec RealAudio)

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Varia

Champs-elysees (shockwave audio)
FRANCE FREQUENCE SUR- LE-NET (service d'acces illimite, mais payant, avec realaudio)

 

Romansch Language

ROMANSCH: a language of Switzerland

SIL code:  RHE
ISO 639-1: rm
ISO 639-2:  roh
 
Population 40,000 or 0.6% of the population (1990 census). 
Region Borders of Switzerland, Austria, Italy; Graubünden Canton, Grisons valley of Surselva, valley of Voderrhein; Engadin and Val Mustair, southeast Switzerland.
Alternate names   RHETO-ROMANCE, RHAETO-ROMANCE, ROMANSH, ROMANCHE
Dialects LOWER ENGADINE (PUTER-LOWER ENGADINE, GRISONS), UPPER ENGADINE (VALLADER-UPPER ENGADINE), SURSILVAN (SURSELVA, SUTSILVAN-HINTERRHEIN), SURSILVAN-OBERLAND, SURMIRAN-ALBULA.
Classification Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian.
Comments Friulian, Ladin, and Romansch are separate languages (R. A. Hall, Jr., personal communication 1978). 78% lexical similarity with Italian and French, 76% with Catalan, 74% with Spanish, Sardinian, and Portuguese, 72% with Romanian. Speakers are bilingual. Standard German is the language of instruction in school. An official written language is in common use now, called Grischuna. Official language. All dialects taught in school. Newspapers. Bible 1679-1953.

 

Here are several links top details about the Romansch Language.

phrasebase.com

MORE

PenPals

Here are details from the web site:

Il linguatg retorumantsch sin l'Internet
The Rhaeto-Romance Language on the Internet - Die rätoromanische Sprache im Internet

 

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Rumantsch
Romansch - Bündnerromanisch

Cun questa pagina jau hai vulì dar varsaquantas connexiuns a paginas sin l'Internet ch'èn scrittas en rumantsch u sa tractan dal linguatg rumantsch. Vus era vegnis a chattar links a paginas en ils linguas ladina e friulana.

Uss questa pagina è mo disponibla en rumantsch grischun ed en englais, ma pli tard jau vegn a dar ina translaziun en tudestg.

.

With this Web page I would like to offer links to various Web sites which are either written in Romansch or concern the Romansch language. It also contains links to Friulan and Ladin Internet resources.

This page is available in Rumantsch Grischun and English only, but shortly I will add a translation in German as well.

.

Paginas rumantschas/Informaziun concernent il linguatg rumantsch

Bigfoot Svizzera
Il register svizzer dad E-mail
The Swiss Email Directory - Der schweizer E-mail Verzeichnis
(rumantsch grischun)

Buser, Christian
Homepage/curs da vita
Home Page/Résumé - Homepage/Lebenslauf
(sursilvan, englais ed tudestg)

Confoederatio Helvetica
Las autoritads federalas da la Confederaziun svizra
The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation - Die Bundesbehörden der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft
(tudestg, franzos, talian, rumantsch grischun ed englais)

Ethnologue Database
(englais)

Federaziun da Boomerang Svizra
Swiss Boomerang Federation - Schweizerische Bumerang Föderation
(englais, tudestg, franzos, talian e sursilvan)

Federaziun svizra da vela
Swiss Sailing Federation - Schweizerischer Segelverband
(tudestg, franzos, talian, rumantsch grischun ed englais)

Interlingua pro Rhetoromanos
(rumantsch grischun ed interlingua)

Internet Online
(tudestg e sursilvan)

Ligia Perpetna digl Uost 1291
(rumantsch grischun)

PUNTS (server en ils USA)
La gasetta giuvna
(tuts idioms rumantschs e rumantsch grischun)

Unesco Red Book On Endangered Languages: Europe
(englais)

 

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Friulan
Friulisch - Friulan

Paginas friulanas/Informaziun concernent il linguatg friulan

Amis De Lenghe Furlane
Amis da la lingua friulana
Friends of the Friulan Language - Freunde der friulischen Sprache
(friulan ed englais)

Ethnologue Database
(englais)

Un Focolare in Friuli per tutti i Friulani nel mondo
(friulan, talian ed englais)

Friuli nel Mondo
(talian e friulan)

Al Gròp Furlàn
(friulan ed englais)

Mercator Media Project
(englais)

Pasolini e il Friuli
(talian)

Radio Onde Furlane
(friulan)

Unesco Red Book On Endangered Languages: Europe
(englais)

 

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Ladin
Ladinisch - Ladin

Paginas ladinas/Informaziun concernent il linguatg ladin

Ethnologue Database
(englais)

The Ladins
Ils Ladins
(englais)

Mercator Media Project
(englais)

Senoner, Markus
Homepage/curs da vita
Home page/Résumé - Homepage/Lebenslauf
(gherdëina, talian, tudestg ed englais)

Unesco Red Book On Endangered Languages: Europe
(englais)

 

[ Swiss Flag ]
Home
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Administration
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Cantons
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Culture
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Economy
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Education
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Geography
[ Wilhelm Tell ]
History
[ Statistical information ]
Statistics
[ Various Information ]
Various
[ Frequently Asked Questions ]
FAQ
[ Keyword Index ]
Index

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Words and Phrases

[ Swiss horizontal ruler ]

Introduction

One of the key features of Switzerland is its cultural diversity. The ancestors of the people how live in this country today have their origins in different cultures. The most obvious result of this cultural variety is the fact, that - even if Switzerland is only a small country - there are as much as four different official languages: German (74%), French (20%), Italian (4%) and Romansh (1%) - the remaining 1% speaks other languages. See statistics for more detailed information.

The map below shows where people speak what language (click on the map for an enlargement).

[ Language distribution in Switzerland ]

We use the following abbreviations and coloring schema to identify the languages:

EN for English DE for German FR for French IT for Italian RO for Romansh

At the borders where two languages meet, the language does not change abruptly, it rather changes gradually. People living on the border usually grow up bilingual - this is especially true for the areas marked with strips on the map above. At school, the children have to learn a second language spoken in our country (however, there is currently a big dispute going on, whether our kids should learn English rather than German or French as a second language).

The border between the German and the French speaking part of our country is known as the "Röstigraben" (literally translated: "hashed potatoes ditch"). It stands not only for the separation of the languages, but also for the separation of the cultures and the ideologies. The lingual minorities sometimes feel out-ruled by the majority of the German speaking fellow citizen in political issues. While the French speaking Swiss tend to be more open minded, the German speaking Swiss tend to be more conservative. Again, this is a very general statement, a single individuum should not be judged simply by her or his language or origin.

The term "German speaking Swiss" is not really correct, they actually speak Swiss-German ("Schweizerdeutsch"). Swiss-German is very different form the German spoken in Germany or Austria. Even more surprisingly, there is no written Swiss-German at all. People in Austria, Germany and Switzerland share the same written German language, known as "high German" ("Hochdeutsch") - however, the term "written German" ("Deutsche Schriftsprache") is far more accurate. The written German is very different form the Swiss-German, it is almost a foreign language.
People in each canton have their own, very distinct dialect, which varies significantly. Again, the language changes gradually from north to south and from east to west. Even though the French and the Italian spoken in Switzerland are not absolutely the same as in the neighboring countries, they are not as different as the Swiss-German from the German-German or the Austrian-German.

Romansh is a very different and also a very old language. It is considered a "dead" language, because it does not change anymore. They do not introduce new words for new things, instead, they borrow terms from the German language. Even if there are only a few villages where they still speak this language, there are nonetheless five different dialects (known as idioms) around.
The words in the table below are provided in Romansh Sursilvan, the other idioms are known as Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Puter and Vallader. See Lia Rumantscha for much more information about Romansh.

Note: The tables below show a number of words and simple common phrases in English and their translations in all four official Swiss languages. While the author took every effort to find the correct words or expressions, there is no guarantee for correctness. In addition, the same word may have different meanings depending on the context or region. The author tried to choose common words and phrases a visitor may need, but this document shall not replace a dictionary at all.
If you come across a document on the Web which you cannot understand because it is written in a foreign language, you may try babelfish to translate it - however, my experience is, that the output is hardly useful. On-line translation is still far away from what it needs be ...

Acknowledgments: The author wants to thank all his friends for their kind and valued help to create this document, most of all Theodor Casutt from the ETH Zürich for his tremendous efforts to provide the Romansh translation. However, the responsibility for all errors is with no one else but the author mentioned at the bottom of this document. Please send suggestions for corrections or additions to questions@about.ch.

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Table of contents

  1. Switzerland
  2. Numbers (sound example available)
  3. Fractions
  4. Ordinals
  5. Time
  6. Orientation
  7. Food
  8. Animals
  9. Relationship
  10. The human body
  11. Clothing
  12. Activities
  13. Miscellaneous

  14. Simple common phrases

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Switzerland

Also known as Confoederatio Helvetica (therefore CH)

English German French Italian Romansh
Switzerland Schweiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra

To table of contents

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Numbers (DE: Zahlen, FR: Nombres, IT: Numeri, RO: cefras / diembers)

  English German French Italian Romansh
0 zero null zéro zero null
1 one eins un uno in
2 two zwei deux due dus
3 three drei trois tre treis
4 four vier quatre quattro quater
5 five fünf cinq cinque tschun
6 six sechs six sei sis
7 seven sieben sept sette siat
8 eight acht huit otto otg
9 nine neun neuf nove nov
10 ten zehn dix dieci diesch
11 eleven elf onze undici endisch
12 twelve zwölf douze dodici dudisch
13 thirteen dreizehn treize tredici tredisch
14 fourteen vierzehn quatorze quattordici quitordisch
15 fifteen fünfzehn quinze quindici quendisch
16 sixteen sechzehn seize sedici sedisch
17 seventeen siebzehn dix-sept diciassette gisiat
18 eighteen achtzehn dix-huit diciotto schotg
19 nineteen neunzehn dix-neuf diciannove scheniv
20 twenty zwanzig vingt venti vegn
21 twenty-one einundzwanzig vingt et un ventuno ventgin
22 twenty-two zweiundzwanzig vingt-deux ventidue ventgadus
... etc. usw. etc. ecc. eav.
30 thirty dreissig trente trenta trenta
31 thirty-one einunddreissig trente et un trentuno trentin
32 thirty-two zweiunddreissig trente-deux trentadue trentadus
... etc. usw. etc. ecc. eav.
40 forty vierzig quarante quaranta curonta
50 fifty fünfzig cinquante cinquanta tschunconta
60 sixty sechzig soixante sessanta sissonta
70 seventy siebzig soixante-dix settanta siatonta
80 eighty achtzig quatre-vingt ottanta otgonta
90 ninety neunzig quatre-vingt-dix novanta novonta
100 hundred hundert cent cento tschien
200 two hundred zweihundert deux cents duecento duatschien
... etc. usw. etc. ecc. eav.
1'000 thousand tausend mille mille melli
2'000 two thousand zweitausend deux mille duemila duamelli
... etc. usw. etc. ecc. eav.
1'000'000 million million le million millione milliun
1'000'000'000 billion milliarde le milliard miliardo milliarda
1'000'000'000'000 trillion billion le billion billione billiun

Sound Samples, counting from 1 to 10:

bullet[ Play sound ] Hear a person from Bern counting in Swiss German (WAV-file, 259 kB)
bullet[ Play sound ] Hear a person from Zürich counting in Swiss German (WAV-file, 259 kB)
bullet[ Play sound ] Hear a person counting in French (WAV-file, 259 kB)
bullet[ Play sound ] Hear a person counting in Italian (WAV-file, 232 kB)
bullet[ Play sound ] Hear a person counting in Romansh (WAV-file, 212 kB)

See also information about units used in Switzerland and how they relate to the U.S. unit system plus some unit conversion tables.

To table of contents

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Fractions (DE: Bruchzahlen, FR: Nombres fractionnaires, IT: Frazione, RO: fracziuns)

  English German French Italian Romansh
1/2 one half ein Zweitel un demi un mezzo in miez
1/3 one third ein Drittel un tiers un terzo in tierz
1/4 one fourth ein Viertel un quart un quarto in quart

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Ordinals (DE: Ordnungszahlen, FR: Nombres ordinaux, IT: Numeri ordinari, RO: diember ordinal)

  English German French Italian Romansh
1. first der Erste le premier il primo igl emprem
2. second der Zweite le deuxième il secondo il secund
3. third der Dritte le troisième il terzo il tierz
4. fourth der Vierte le quatrième il quarto il quart

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Time (DE: die Zeit, FR: le temps, IT: il tempo, RO: il temps)

English German French Italian Romansh
second die Sekunde la seconde il secondo la secunda
minute die Minute la minute il minuto la minuta
hour die Stunde l'heure l'ora l'ura
day der Tag le jour il giorno il di
week die Woche la semaine la settimana la jamna
month der Monat le mois il mese il meins
year das Jahr l'année l'anno igl onn
decade das Jahrzehnt la décade la decade il decenni
century das Jahrhundert le siècle il secolo il tschentaner
millennium das Jahrtausend le millénium il millennio il millenni
forever immer / ewig éternel per sempre adina / en perpeten
 
morning der Morgen / der Vormittag le matin la mattina la damaun
noon der Mittag la midi il mezzogiorno il miezdi
afternoon der Nachmittag l'après-midi il pomeriggio il suentermiezdi
evening der Abend le soir la sera la sera
night die Nacht la nuit la notte la notg
midnight Mitternacht minuit mezzanotte mesanotg
 
now jetzt maintenant adesso / ora uss / ussa
today heute aujourd'hui oggi oz
yesterday gestern hier ieri ier
tomorrow morgen demain domani damaun
 
(too) early (zu) früh (trop) tôt (al) presto (memia) baul
(too) late (zu) spät (trop) tard (tropo) tardi (memia) tard
on time pünktlich ponctuelle puntuale puntual
 
watch die Uhr la montre la vigilanza la ura
1 AM ein Uhr vormittags / ein Uhr une heure le matin alle una la matina all'ina la notg
1 PM ein Uhr nachmittags / dreizehn Uhr une heure l'après-midi alle una il pomeriggio all'ina da miezdi
quarter to viertel vor mois le quart meno un quarto in quart da (las duas)
quarter past viertel nach et quart e un quarto in quart vargau (..)
half past one halb zwei une heure et demie alle una et mezzo (las treis) e mesa
5 minutes to fünf (Minuten) vor mois cinq meno cinque tschun avon
5 minutes past fünf (Minuten) nach et cinq e cinque tschun vargau
 
Monday Montag Lundi lunedì gliendischdis
Tuesday Dienstag Mardi martedì mardis
Wednesday Mittwoch Mercredi mercoledì mesjamna
Thursday Donnerstag Jeudi giovedì gievgia
Friday Freitag Vendredi venerdì venderdis
Saturday Samstag Samedi sabato sonda
Sunday Sonntag Dimanche domenica dumengia
 
January Januar Janvier gennaio schaner
February Februar Février febbraio favrer
March März Mars marzo mars
April April Avril aprile avrel
May Mai Mai maggio matg
June Juni Juin giugno zercladur
July Juli Juillet luglio fenadur
August August Août agosto uost
September September Septembre settembre settember
October Oktober Octobre ottobre october
November November Novembre novembre november
December Dezember Décembre dicembre december

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Orientation (DE: Orientierung, FR: Orientation, IT: Orientamento, RO: orientaziun)

English German French Italian Romansh
map die Karte la carte la carta la carta
direction die Richtung la direction la direzione direcziun
 
north Norden nord nord nord
east Osten est est ost / orient
south Süden sud sud sid
west Westen ouest ovest occident
 
left links à gauche a sinistra seniester
right rechts à droite a destra dretg
in front vorn devant davanti davon
behind hinten en arrière dietro davos
on / above auf sur / en haut su / sopra sin / sura
below unter au-dessous sotto sut
close / nearby nah tout près qui vicino proxim
far away weit weg à distance distante lontan

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Food (DE: Nahrung / Lebensmittel, FR: Nourriture, IT: Alimento, RO: nutriment)

English German French Italian Romansh
bread das Brot le pain il pane il paun
cheese der Käse le fromage il formaggio il caschiel
butter die Butter le beurre il burro la pischada
chips / french fries Pommes frites pommes frites patate fritte pommes frites
potato die Kartoffel la pomme de terre la patata il truffel
rice der Reis le riz il riso il ris
pasta die Teigwaren les pâtes la pasta pasta
vegetables das Gemüse le légume la verdura legums
fruit die Frucht le fruit la frutta il fretg
apple der Apfel la pomme la mela il meil
pear die Birne la poire la pera il per
nut die Nuss la noix la noce la nusch
herb das Kraut l'herbe l'erba l'jarva
salad der Salat la salade l'insalata la salata
dressing die Salatsauce la sauce de salade la salsa per l'insalata la sosa da salata
chicken das Huhn / Poulet le poulet il pollo il pulaster
meat das Fleisch la viande la carne la carn
veal das Kalbfleisch le veau il vitello la carn vadi
beef das Rindfleisch le boeuf carne di manzo la carn bov
pork das Schweinefleisch le porc carne di maiale la carn piertg
sausage die Wurst le saucisson la salsiccia la ligiongia
chocolate die Schokolade le chocolat il cioccolato la tschugalata
fish der Fisch le poisson il pesce il pèsch
milk die Milch le lait il latte il latg
cold / hot chocolate die kalte / heisse Schokolade le chocolat froid / chaud il cioccolato freddo / caldo la tschugalata freida / caulda
water das Wasser l'eau l'acqua l'aua
mineral water das Mineralwasser l'eau minérale l'acqua minerale l'aua minerala
... with / without gas ... mit / ohne Kohlensäure ... avec / sans gaz ... con / senza gas ... cun / senza gas
lemonade die Limonade la limonade la limonata la limonada
wine der Wein le vin il vino il vin
 
plate der Teller l'assiette il piatto il taglier
cup die Tasse la tasse la tazza la scadiola
glass das Glas le verre il bicchiere il migiel
fork die Gabel la fourchette la forchetta la savetscha
knife das Messer le couteau il coltello il cunti
tablespoon der Esslöffel la cuiller / la cuillère il cucchiaio il tschadun
spoon der Teelöffel la petite cuillère il cucchiaino il tscahdun pign
 
guest der Gast l'hôte l'ospite il hosp
waiter der Kellner le garçon il cameriere il camerier
waitress die Kellnerin / die Serviertochter la mademoiselle la cameriera la cameriera
tip das Trinkgeld le service la manica la bunamana
... included ... inbegriffen ... compris ... compreso ... cumpriu
 
enjoy your meal Mahlzeit / "än guete" bon appétit buon appetito bien appetit

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Animals (DE: Tiere, FR: Animaux, IT: Animali, RO: animals)

English German French Italian Romansh
insect das Insekt le insecte l'insetto igl insect
reptile das Reptil le reptile il rettile il reptil
snake die Schlange le serpent il serpente la siarp
fish der Fisch le poisson il pesce il pèsch
bird der Vogel l'oiseau l'uccello igl utschi
eagle der Adler l'aigle l'aquila il tschess
chicken das Huhn la poulet il pollo la gaglina
rooster der Hahn le coq il gallo il tgiet
mammal das Säugetier le mammifère il mammifero igl animal lactont
mouse die Maus la souris il topo la miur
cat die Katze la chat il gatto il gat
dog der Hund le chien il cane il tgaun
cow die Kuh la vache la mucca la vacca
horse das Pferd le cheval il cavallo il cavagl
bear der Bär l'ours l'orso igl uors
lion der Löwe le lion il leone il liun
tiger der Tiger le tigre il tigre il tigher

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Traffic (DE: der Verkehr, FR: le trafic, IT: il traffico, RO: il traffic)

English German French Italian Romansh
trail der Weg / der Pfad le sentier il sentiero la senda
road die Strasse la rue la strada / via la via
highway die Hauptstrasse la rue principale la strada principale la via pricipala
divided highway richtungsgetrennte Hauptstrasse la rue principale séparé la strada principale separata -
motorway / freeway die Autobahn l'autoroute l'autostrada l’autostrada
train / railroad / railway der Zug / die Eisenbahn le train / le chemin de fer il treno / la ferrovia il tren / la viafier
railway station der Bahnhof la gare la stazione la statziun
main station der Hauptbahnhof la gare centrale la stazione centrale la staziun pricipala
time table der Fahrplan l'horaire l'orario igl urari
boat das Boot la barque la barca la barca
ship / vessel das Schiff le bateau / le vaisseau la nave / il vascello la nav / il bastiment
plane das Flugzeug l'avion l'aereo / l'aeroplano igl eroplan
car das Auto / der Personenwagen la voiture l'automobile igl auto(mobil)
bus der Bus le bus l'autobus igl autobus
lorry / truck der Lastwagen le camion il camion il car da virgira
motorcycle das Motorrad / der Töff le moto / la motocyclette la motocicletta il motor / il velo a motor
bicycle das Fahrrad / das Velo la bicyclette / le vélo la bicicletta il velo / la bicicletta
by foot zu Fuss par les pieds a piedi a pei
 
(too) fast (zu) schnell (trop) vite (troppo) veloce (memia) spert / (memia) svelt
(too) slow (zu) langsam (trop) lent (troppo) lento (memia) plaun
slow down langsamer plus lentement / ralentir rallentare pli plaun

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Relationship (DE: die Verwandschaft, FR: la parenté, IT: la parentela, RO: la parentella)

English German French Italian Romansh
man der Mann l'homme l'uomo igl um
woman die Frau / die Dame la femme / la madame la donna / la signora la dunna / la signura
boy der Knabe / der Junge le garçon il ragazzo il buob / il mat
girl das Mädchen la jeune fille la ragazza la matatscha / la matta
baby das Baby / der Säugling le bébé il bambino il pop
husband der Ehemann le mari il marito il mariu
wife die Ehefrau la épouse la moglie la dunna / la consorta
spouse der Gatte / die Gattin l'époux / l'épouse il sposo / la sposa il consort / la consorta
father-in-law der Schwiegervater le beau-père il suocero il sir
mother-in-law die Schwiegermutter la belle-mère la suocera la sira
father der Vater le père il padre il bab
mother die Mutter la mère la madre la mumma
child das Kind l'enfant il bambino igl affon
son der Sohn le fils il figlio il fegl
daughter die Tochter la fille la figlia la feglia
brother der Bruder le frère il fratello il frar
sister die Schwester la soeur la sorella la sora
siblings die Geschwister frère(s) et soeur(s) fratello e sorella / fratelli ils fargliuns
twins die Zwillinge les jumeaux / les jumelles i gemelli ils schumellins
grandfather der Grossvater le grand-père il nonno il tat
grandmother die Grossmutter la grand-mère la nonna la tatta
grandchild das Grosskind (der Enkel / die Enkelin) le petit-enfant (le petit-fils / la petite-fille) il / la nipote il beadi / la beadia
uncle der Onkel l'oncle lo zio igl aug
aunt die Tante la tante la zia l’onda
cousin der Vetter / die Base le cousin / la cousine il cugino / la cugina il cusrin / la cusrina
friend der Freund / die Freundin l'ami / l'amie l'amico / l'amica igl amitg l’amitga

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The human body (DE: der menschliche Körper, FR: le corps humain, IT: il corpo umano , RO: il tgierp human)

English German French Italian Romansh
human being der Mensch l'homme l'uomo il carstgaun
body der Körper le corps il corpo il tgierp
skin die Haut la peau la pelle la pial
head der Kopf la tête la testa il tgau
hair die Haare (das Haar) les cheveux i capelli ils cavels
eye das Auge l'oeil l'occhio igl egl
nose die Nase le nez il naso il nas
ear das Ohr l'oreille l'orecchio l’ureglia
mouth der Mund la bouche la bocca la bucca
tooth der Zahn le dent il dente il dent
tongue die Zunge la langue la lingua la lieunga
neck der Hals le cou il collo il culiez
throat die Kehle la gorge la gola la gula
breast die Brust la poitrine il petto il pez / il sein
arm der Arm le bras il braccio il bratsch
hand die Hand la main la mano il maun
finger der Finger le doigt il dito il det
leg das Bein la jambe la gamba la comba
foot der Fuss le pied il piede il pei
toe der Zehe le doigt de pied / l'orteil il dito del piede / la punta il det pei
 
sex das Geschlecht le sexe il sesso la schlateina
male männlich mâle / masculin maschio / maschile masculin
female weiblich féminin femmina / femminile feminin

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Clothing (DE: die Kleidung, FR: l'habits, IT: l'abito, RO: la vetagdira)

English German French Italian Romansh
clothes / gowns die Kleider les vêtements i vestiti la vestgadira / il resti
underwear die Unterwäsche le linge de corps / la lingerie la biancheria intima il resti suten
shirt das Hemd la chemise la camicia la camischa
tie die Krawatte la cravate la cravatta la cravatta
pullover / sweater der Pullover / der Überzieher le chandail il maglione il pullover
trousers / pants die Hose(n) le pantalon i pantaloni la caultschas
socks die Socken les chaussettes i calzini la soccas
jacket die Jacke la veste / le veston la giacca la giacca
windbreaker die Windjacke la veste imperméable la giacca a vento la giacca da mallaura
coat der Mantel le manteau il cappotto il manti
shoe der Schuh la chaussure la scarpa il calzer
boot der Stiefel la botte il stivale la stivla / la bottina
hat der Hut le chapeau il cappello la capiala

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Activities (DE: Tätigkeiten, FR: Activités, IT: Attività, RO: activitads)

English German French Italian Romansh
walk gehen aller andare ir / marschar
hike wandern faire de la marche viaggiare a piedi viandar
run rennen / laufen courir correre cuorer
drive fahren aller / conduire condurre conduir
fly fliegen voler volare sgular
swim schwimmen nager nuotare senudar
dive tauchen plonger immergersi sfunsar
 
eat essen manger mangiare magliar
drink trinken boire bere beiber
 
say sagen dire dire dir
speak sprechen parler parlare tschintschar
talk reden parler chiaccherare plidar
shout schreien crier gridare grir
whisper flüstern chuchoter susurrare scutinar
cry weinen pleurer piangere bargir
 
read lesen lire leggere leger
write schreiben écrire scrivere scriver
hear hören entendre udire udir
listen zuhören écouter sentire tedlar
see sehen voir vedere veser
watch zuschauen regarder guardare mirar
 
kiss küssen embrasser baciare bitschar
love lieben aimer amare carezar
hate hassen 'haïr odiare odiar

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Miscellaneous (DE: Verschiedenes, FR: Divers, IT: Varie, RO: diversa)

English German French Italian Romansh
house das Haus la maison la casa la casa
building das Gebäude le bâtiment l'edificio il baghetg
tower der Turm la tour la torre la tuor
castle das Schloss / die Burg le château il castello il casti
hut die Hütte la cabane la capanna la tegia
shelter der Unterstand l'abri il ricovero il suttetg
door die Tür / die Türe la porte la porta igl esch
window das Fenster la fenêtre la finestra la finiastra
floor das Stockwerk l'étage il piano l’alzada
roof das Dach le toit il tetto il tetg
 
municipality die Gemeinde la commune / la municipalité il comune / il municipio la vischnaunca
village das Dorf le village il villaggio il vitg
town die Stadt la ville la città il marcau
city die Grossstadt la grande ville la grande città il marcau grond
downtown das Stadtzentrum ("City") le centre ville il centro della città il center dil marcau
district der Bezirk le district la provincia il district / il circuit
state der Kanton le canton il cantone il cantun
country das Land le pays il paese la tiara
nation die Nation la nation la nazione la naziun
continent der Kontinent le continent il continente il continent
earth die Erde la terre la terra la tiara / il mund
moon der Mond la lune la luna la glina
planet der Planet la planète la pianeta il planet
star der Stern l'étoile la stella la steila
solar system das Sonnensystem le système solaire la sistema solare il sitem dil sulegl
galaxy die Galaxie le galaxie la galassia la galaxia
universe das Universum l'univers il universo igl univers
 
hill der Hügel la colline la collina il crest / il biet
mountain der Berg la montagne il monte la muntogna
valley das Tal la vallée la valle la val / la vallada
rivulet der Bach le ruisseau il ruscello igl ual
river der Fluss le fleuve il fiume il flum
pond der Teich l'étang lo stagno il puoz
lake der See le lac il lago il lag
sea das Meer / die See la mer il mare la mar
ocean der Ozean l'océan l'oceano igl ozean
 
meadow die Wiese le pré il prato il prau
flower die Blume la fleur il fiore la flura
bush der Busch la brousse la boscaglia la caglia
tree der Baum l'arbre l'albero la plonta
forest der Wald la fôret il bosco igl uaul
 
pen der Schreibstift le stylo la penna il culli
pencil der Bleistift le crayon la matita il rispli
letter der Brief la lettre la lettera la brev
 
cinema das Kino le cinéma il cinema il kino / il cinema
concert das Konzert le concert il concerto il concert
opera die Oper l'opéra l'opera l’opera
band / orchestra die Musikgruppe / das Orchester l'orchestre l'orchestra la capella / igl orchester
play das Schauspiel le spectacle lo spettacolo la cumedia
ticket die Eintrittskarte / die Fahrkarte (das Billett) le billet il biglietto il biglet
 
passport der Reisepass le passeport il passaporto il passaport
driver's license der Führerschein le permis du conduire la patente la lubientscha da manischunz
 
departure die Abfahrt le départ la partenza la partenza
arrival die Ankunft l'arrivée l'arrivo l’arrivada
track / platform das Gleis / der Bahnsteig (Perron) la voie / le quai il binario il binari / il perrun
 
open offen ouvert aperto aviert
closed geschlossen fermé chiuso serrau
no admittance kein Zugang / gesperrt passage interdit passaggio vietato fermau
entrance der Eingang l'entrée l'entrata l’entrada
exit der Ausgang la sortie l'uscita la sortida
emergency exit der Notausgang la sortie de secours l'uscita di sicurezza la sortida d’urgenza

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Simple common phrases (DE: einfache Redewendungen, FR: expressions simple, IT: frasi semplici, RO: sempla expressiuns)

EN: Hi
DE: Grüezi
FR: Salue
IT: Ciao
RO: Tgau

 

EN: Good morning
DE: Guten Morgen
FR: Bon jour
IT: Buon giorno
RO: Bien di

 

EN: Good evening
DE: Guten Abend
FR: Bon soir
IT: Buona sera
RO: Buna sera

 

EN: Good night
DE: Gute Nacht
FR: Bon nuit
IT: Buona notte
RO: Buna notg

 

EN: Good bye
DE: Auf Wiedersehen / Tschüss
FR: Au revoir
IT: Arrivederci
RO: Sin seveser

 

EN: Thanks
DE: Danke
FR: Merci
IT: Grazie
RO: Engraziel

 

EN: What's your name ?
DE: Wie ist Ihr Name ? / Wie heissen Sie ?
FR: Quel est votre nom ? / Comment vous appelez-vous ?
IT: Come si chiama ?
RO: Co haveis vus num ?

 

E: My name is Paul.
D: Meine Name ist Paul. / Ich heisse Paul.
FR: Mon nom est Paul. / Je m'appel Paul.
IT: Mi chiamo Paolo.
RO: Jeu hai num Paul.

 

E: I am hungry.
D: Ich bin hungrig. / Ich habe Hunger.
FR: J'ai faim.
IT: Ho fame.
RO: Jeu hai fom.

 

E: I am thirsty.
D: Ich bin durstig. / Ich habe Durst.
FR: J'ai soif.
IT: Ho sete.
RO: Jeu hai seit.

 

E: Where is the nearest restaurant / hotel, please ?
D: Wo ist das nächste Restaurant / Hotel, bitte ?
FR: Où est le restaurant / hôtel le plus proches, s'il vous plaît ?
IT: Dove è il ristorante / l'hotel più vicino, per favore ?
RO: Nua ei il restorant / hotel il pli maneivel ?

 

E: Is there a room available ?
D: Haben Sie ein freies Zimmer ?
FR: Avez-vous une chambre libre ?
IT: Ha una stanza libera ?
RO: Haveis vus ina stanza libra ?

 

E: How much is it ?
D: Wieviel kostet es ?
FR: Combien cella coûte ?
IT: Quanto costa ?
RO: Con cuosta quei ?

 

E: What time is it ?
D: Wieviel Uhr ist es ? / Wie spät ist es ?
FR: Quelle heure est-il ?
IT: Che ora è ?
RO: Tgei uras eis ei ?

 

E: It's a quarter past eight. / It's a quarter past eight AM. / It's a quarter past eight PM.
D: Es ist viertel nach acht. / Es ist acht Uhr fünfzehn. (morning) / Es ist zwanzig Uhr fünfzehn. (afternoon)
FR: Il est huit heures et quart. / Il est huit heures et quart le matin. / Il est huit heures et quart le soir.
IT: Sono le otto e un quarto. / Sono le otto e un quarto di mattina. / Sono le otto e un quarto di sera.
RO: Igl ei in quart vargau las otg / Igl ei la damaun in quart vargau las otg / Igl ei la sera in quart vargau las otg.

 

E: Where is the railway station ?
D: Wo ist der Bahnhof ?
FR: Où est la gare ?
IT: Dov' è la stazione ferroviaria ?
RO: Nua ei la staziun ?

 

E: Where can I buy a ticket ?
D: Wo kann ich eine Fahrkarte kaufen ?
FR: Où est-que je peux acheter un billet ?
IT: Dove posso comprare un biglietto ?
RO: Nua ei la vendita da biglets ?

 

E: Over there !
D: Dort drüben !
FR: Là-bas !
IT: Là ! / Laggiù !
RO: Vi leu !

 

E: How far is it to the airport ?
D: Wie weit ist es zum Flugplatz ?
FR: À quelle distance est-il à l'aéroport ?
IT: Quant'è distante l'aeroporto ?
RO: Con lunsch eis ei agl eroport ?

 

E: Which way to the post office ?
D: Wie komme ich zur Post ?
FR: Pourriez-vous m'indiquer le chemin pour aller a la poste ?
IT: Dov'è l'ufficio postale ?
RO: Nua ei la posta ?

 

E: My car broke down, can you help ?
D: Mein Auto ist kaputt, können Sie mir helfen ?
FR: Ma voiture est tombée dans une panne, pourriez-vous m'aider ?
IT: L'automobile s'è rotta, può aiutarmi  ?
RO: Miu auto ei en panna, saveis vus gidar mei ?

 

E: I need a doctor / dentist.
D: Ich brauche einen Arzt / Zahnarzt.
FR: J'ai besoin d'un médecin / d' dentiste.
IT: Ho bisogno d'un medico / dentista.
RO: Jeu hai basegns din miedi / dentist.

 

E: Please call the ambulance / fire brigade / police !
D: Bitte rufen Sie einen Krankenwagen / die Feuerwehr / die Polizei !
FR: Veuillez appeler d'ambulance / les pompiers / la police !
IT: Chiami per favore un'ambulanza / i vigili del fuoco / la polizia !
RO: Fagei schi bien e clamei l’ambulanza / ils pumpiers / la polizia !

 

E: HELP !
D: HILFE !
FR: AIDE !
IT: AIUTO !
RO: AGID !

 

E: I love you.
D: Ich liebe Dich.
FR: Je t'aime.
IT: Ti amo.
RO: Jeu carezel tei.

 

 

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