Zweibrucken, Germany History
(tsv´´brü´kn) (KEY) ,
Fr. Deux-Ponts, city (1994 pop. 35,704), Rhineland-Palatinate, W Germany,
near the Saarland border. Zweibrücken is a transportation center and has
ironworks, steelworks, and factories that produce leather goods, wood products,
machines, and textiles. It is also a noted horse-breeding center, horse races
are held there. Zweibrücken was chartered in 1352 and passed (1385) to the Palatinate
branch of the Bavarian house of Wittelsbach. In 1410 it became the seat of the
counts (later dukes) palatine of Zweibrücken under a cadet line of the
Palatinate branch. Charles X of Sweden was the nephew of John II, duke palatine
of Zweibrücken; his son, Charles XI of Sweden, inherited Zweibrücken in the
late 17th cent., and the duchy remained in personal union with Sweden from 1697
until the death (1718) of Charles XII. The Zweibrücken line continued until
1731, when the related Palatinate-Birkenfeld line acceded. The duchy of Zweibrücken
was annexed (1797) to France. It was restored to Bavaria at the Congress of
Vienna (1814–15) and since then has shared the history of the Rhenish
Palatinate. It was virtually demolished in World War II but has since been
Wittelsbach, German History, Biographies
Key, German dynasty that ruled Bavaria from 1180 until 1918.
The family takes its name from the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach in
Upper Bavaria. In 1180 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I invested Count Otto
of Wittelsbach with the much-reduced duchy of Bavaria,
of which he had deprived the Guelphic duke, Henry the Lion. In 1214 Otto's
son, Otto II, also received the Rhenish Palatinate. After Otto's death
(1253) the Wittelsbach possessions were divided between an elder branch,
which received the Rhenish Palatinate and W Bavaria, and a younger branch,
which received the rest.
The Wittelsbachs reached their zenith under Duke Louis III, of the
elder branch, who became Holy Roman Emperor Louis
IV (reigned 1314–47). Louis IV temporarily (1324–73) attached Brandenburg
to his dynasty and through his second marriage added Hainaut, Holland,
Zeeland, and Friesland. In 1329, Louis IV subdivided the Wittelsbach
lands; the elder branch, descended from Louis's brother Rudolf, received
the Rhenish and the Upper Palatinate, while the younger branch, descended
from Louis's first marriage, received Bavaria proper.
The electoral dignity at first was to alternate between the two
branches but was settled permanently on the Palatinate branch by the
Golden Bull of 1356. Both branches underwent several subdivisions, but in
the early 16th cent. Bavaria was reunited by Duke Albert IV, who
introduced succession by primogeniture. (For the subdivisions of the
Palatinate branch, which is not treated here in detail, see Palatinate.)
In 1443 Philip the Good of Burgundy seized Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland,
and Friesland from Countess Jacqueline, his first cousin. In the 16th and
17th cent. the Bavarian Wittelsbachs championed the Roman Catholic cause
while the Palatinate branch were the leading Protestant princes. After the
defeat of the elector palatine, known as Frederick
the Winter King of Bohemia, his electoral voice was transferred (1623)
to Duke Maximilian
I of Bavaria, who also received the Upper Palatinate. A new electorate
was created in 1648 for Frederick's son, to whom the Rhenish Palatinate
Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria was chosen (1742) Holy Roman emperor
VII; with the death (1777) of his son, Maximilian III, the Bavarian
branch of the Wittelsbachs died out, and the Palatinate-Sulzbach line
acceded in Bavaria in the person of Elector Charles Theodore, who died in
1799 without issue. He was succeeded by the duke palatine of ZweibrUcken,
senior member of the Palatinate branch, who thus united all Wittelsbach
lands under his sole rule and who in 1806 became king of Bavaria as Maximilian
I. His successors as kings of Bavaria were Louis
I, and Louis
III, who was deposed in 1918.
Empress Elizabeth of Austria, wife of Francis
Joseph, and Queen Elizabeth of the Belgians, consort of Albert
I, issued from a collateral line of the dynasty, and the Wittelsbachs
have intermarried for centuries with all the royal families of Europe. A
line of the Palatinate branch (see ZweibrUcken)
ruled Sweden from 1654 to 1741. Crown Prince Rupert (d. 1955), son of King
Louis III and claimant to the Bavarian throne (the family never renounced
their claim), also inherited, through a complicated succession, the claim
of the Stuart
dynasty to the British throne. SOURCE
ZweibrUcken, German Political Geography
Key, Fr. Deux-Ponts, city (1994 pop. 35,704),
Rhineland-Palatinate, W Germany, near the Saarland border. ZweibrUcken is
a transportation center and has ironworks, steelworks, and factories that
produce leather goods, wood products, machines, and textiles. It is also a
noted horse-breeding center, horse races are held there. ZweibrUcken was
chartered in 1352 and passed (1385) to the Palatinate
branch of the Bavarian house of Wittelsbach. In 1410 it became the seat of
the counts (later dukes) palatine of ZweibrUcken under a cadet line of the
Palatinate branch. Charles X of Sweden was the nephew of John II, duke
palatine of ZweibrUcken; his son, Charles XI of Sweden, inherited
ZweibrUcken in the late 17th cent., and the duchy remained in personal
union with Sweden from 1697 until the death (1718) of Charles XII. The
ZweibrUcken line continued until 1731, when the related Palatinate-Birkenfeld
line acceded. The duchy of ZweibrUcken was annexed (1797) to France. It
was restored to Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) and since
then has shared the history of the Rhenish Palatinate. It was virtually
demolished in World War II but has since been reconstructed. Source
Remember the John Deere Factory
John Deere Werke Zweibrucken: Innovators in
Harvesting, Seeding and Tillage Technology
John Deere Werke Zweibrucken is a unit of Deere and Company-
the world’s largest manufacturer of farm equipment.
John Deere Company has over 40 factories worldwide and
markets products in more than 150 countries, employing more than 35,000 people.
John Deere invests more than $1.5 million every day in
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Over 5,000 independent dealers worldwide provide sales
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Zweibrucken Werke Manufactured Products
Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters
Equipment and implements for the production of field
crops have been built in Zweibrucken since the Christian Wery Implement Company
was founded in 1863.
This company then merged with Lanz to become the
Lanz-Wery Company in 1916, producing horse drawn hay and forage equipment.
In 1931, the Heinrich Lanz AG company became the sole
owner, manufacturing both horse and tractor drawn equipment at the plant.
In 1956, John Deere and Lanz became international
partners, with John Deere’s acquisition of a majority shareholding.
In 1964, the Zweibrucken factory assumed the development and production
of combine harvesters.
In 1993, self-propelled forage harvester development
and production was transferred to the plant, from John Deere Ottumwa Works
in Ottumwa, IA.
In 1994, the seeding and tillage production lines
In 2000, John Deere Company introduced the
telehandler lines which are manufactured by Zweibrucken Werke.
to Self Propelled Forage Harvester Business
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Producers and custom operators worldwide have come to
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